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Y1 MCD Microbiology > Vaccination > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vaccination Deck (9)
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1

What is active immunisation?

Body makes own antibodies and memory cells to protect against future infection
Naturally acquired - normal infection e.g. chicken pox
Artificial - Vaccine

2

What is passive immunisation?

Antibodies given directly, short lasting immunity, no memory cell production
Naturally acquired - across placenta
Artificial - snake anti venom

3

What is a live attenuated vaccine? Give an example

MMR
Whole virus, reduced virulence
Gives lifelong immunity but can cause some problems

4

What is an inactivated vaccine? Give an example

Hep A, Flu
Dead form of pathogen
Long lasting but not lifelong immunity

5

What is a subunit vaccine? Give an example

Hep B
Strong immunity to the antigens in the vaccine

6

What is a toxoid vaccine? Give an example

Tetanus
Injection of toxin that causes the disease
No protection against pathogen itself

7

What is a conjugate vaccine? Give an example

Pneumococcus
Binding of a weak antigen to a strong antigen
Causes response to the weak antigen to be bigger

8

List examples of bacterial and viral infections for which vaccination can be a successful strategy

MenC
All-in-one paediatric vaccines
-Whooping cough+tetanus+diptheria - Bordetella pertussis
-Hib - meningitis and septicemia
-IPV - polio 1,2,3

9

What are the basic principles of medical microbiology and its clinical relevance?

Great use in identifying an infection then using it to assign the most appropriate treatment
Allows for quicker treatment, shorter stay, reduced cost, reduced morbidity and mortality
Prevents development of more resistant strains of bacteria
sample acquisition→microscopy/culture→identification