Hospital Acquired Infections Flashcards Preview

Y2 MCD - Microbiology - Laz DC > Hospital Acquired Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hospital Acquired Infections Deck (21)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define the following:
a. Antimicrobial
b. Antibacterial
c. Antibiotic

a. Antimicrobial
Interferes with growth and reproduction of a microbe
b. Antibacterial
Commonly used to describe agents that reduce or eliminate harmful bacteria
c. Antibiotic
Type of antimicrobial that is used as medicine for humans and animals

2

What is a health-care associated infection?

Infections that occur after exposure to healthcare Infection starts >48 hours after admission to hospital

3

Why do health-care associated infections cost money to the healthcare system?

They increase the length of stay at hospital

4

List some medical interventions that can increase the risk of infection.

Catheterisation
Intubation
Lines (e.g. central venous lines)
Chemotherapy
Prosthetic material

5

State some other factors that increase the risk of infection in the hospital setting.

Dissemination by healthcare staff
Concentration of ill patients

6

What are the ESCAPE pathogens?

Enterococcus faecium
Staphylococcus aureus
Clostridium difficile
Acinetobacter baumanii
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Enterobacteriaceae
NOTE:
ESC are Gram-positive
APE are Gram-negative

7

What is the main problem with the escape pathogens?

They are antibiotic resistant

8

What is the most frequent cause of bacteraemia by a Gram-negative bacterium?

E. coli

9

What does E. coli frequently cause?

UTI

10

Which antibiotics is E. coli resistant to in many countries?

Cephalosporins

11

Which antibiotics is E. coli still sensitive to?

Carbapenems

12

State the target proteins and the method of resistance to the following classes of antibiotics:
a. Cephalosporins
b. Carbapenems
c. Methicillin
d. Vancomycin

a. Cephalosporins
Target: Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)
Resistance: Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)
b. Carbapenems
Target: PBP
Resistance: Carbapenemase enzymes
c. Methicillin
Target: PBP
Resistance: alternative target (PBP2A), which has low affinity for methicillin and can function in its presence
d. Vancomycin
Target: peptidoglycan precursor
Resistance: synthesis of a different peptidoglycan precursor

13

What is ESBL encoded on?

Plasmid

14

What are carbapenemases encoded on?

Transposon

15

What types of infections does Klebsiella pneumoniae tend to cause?

UTI
Respiratory tract

16

Which group of patients are at risk of Klebsiella infection?

Immunocompromised

17

Which classes of antibiotics are Klebsiella widely resistant to?

Cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides
Carbapenem resistance in the US

18

Which group of patients are at risk of P. aeruginosa infection?

Immunocompromised

19

Which class of antibiotics is P. aeruginosa widely resistant to?

Carbapenems

20

What is the most important cause of antimicrobial resistant infection in the world?

MRSA

21

What is Enterococcus faecium widely resistant to?

Vancomycin
NOTE: causes blood stream infections