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Y2 MCD - Microbiology - Laz DC > Leishmania > Flashcards

Flashcards in Leishmania Deck (20)
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1

What is the insect vector for leishmania?

Sandfly

2

Inside the human host, which cells do the parasites replicatewithin?

Macrophages

3

What are the two forms of leishmania and how are they different?

Promastigotes – found in the sandfly – they have a flagellum (which they move towards) and they are motile
Amastigotes – found within humans/other vertebrate hosts – they have resorbed their flagellum and are no longer motile – found in macrophages

4

Where, across the world, are sandflies found?

Warm parts of the world – Southern Europe, Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Australia

5

How is transmission of leishmania in Europe changing?

It is spreading northwards

6

Describe the appearance and behaviour of sandflies.

They are small and hairy
They hop around before settling down to bite
Unlike mosquitoes, they are silent in attack

7

Which gender of sandflies takes blood meals?

Females – need blood to provide nutrition for eggs

8

What are the four major forms of leishmaniasis?

Visceral Leishmaniasis
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Diffuse Cutaneous
Leishmaniasis
Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

9

What is another name for visceral leishmaniasis?

Kala Azar (black fever)

10

What are the features of visceral leishmaniasis?

Irregular fever
Weight loss
Enlarged liver and spleen
Anaemia

11

What are some risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis?

Malnutrition
Immunosuppression (e.g. because of drugs)
HIV

12

Which type of leishmania causes the majority of cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia?

L. donovani

13

How is visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed?

Visualisation of the amastigote parasite my microscopic examination of aspirates
Antibody detection

14

What are the treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis?

Sodium stibogluconate or meglumin antimoniate
Liposomal amphotericin B

15

What other clinical manifestation of leishmania can occur during or after treatment for visceral leishmaniasis?

Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL)

16

Describe the features of local cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Heals spontaneously
Immunity from reinfection
NOTE: it can still leave disfiguring scars

17

Describe the features of diffused cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Disseminated lesions
Resembles leprosy
No spontaneous healing
Difficult to treat
Frequent relapses

18

Which part of the body does mucocutaneous leishmaniasis typically affect?

Mouth and nose

19

Describe the features of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Disfiguring and destroys mucous membranes
No spontaneous healing
Frequent relapses

20

What type of leishmania are the majority of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions caused by?

L. aethiopica