HTLV-1 and Inflammation Flashcards Preview

Module 2 > HTLV-1 and Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in HTLV-1 and Inflammation Deck (42):
1

How many HTLV-1 carriers get HAM?

>3%

2

What is seen with HTLV-1 assocaited alveolitis?

cough and dyspnoea or asymtpomatic

3

Waht condition is associated with htlv1-associated alevolitis?

HAM

4

What is seen on BAL with HTLV1-associated alveolitis?

lymphocytosis of activated lymphocytes- CD25 and HLA DR markers

5

Which type of joints does HTLV-1 assocaited arthropathy affect?

large joints

6

Which gender is more affected by HTLV1 associated arthropathy?

femal

7

What is seen histoogically with HTLV-1 associated arthropathy?

synovial proliferation with lymphocytes; HTLV-1 antibodies and flower clels in synovial fluid

8

Who gets infective dermatits?

children in the tropics

9

What does infective dermatitis resemble?

infected eczema eithout atopy

10

What is infective dermatitis associated with?

high proviral load and increased risk of HAM or ATLL

11

What organisms cause infective dermaittis?

non-pathogenic strep and staph

12

Where does infective dermatits affect?

scalp, ears, axillae, groins

13

What is the treatment for infective dermatitis?

long term antibiotics

14

What are hte clinical features of HTLV-1 associated myositis?

proximal muscle weakness; wasting; elevated CPK; associated with HAM

15

Which patients get HTLV-1 assocaited myositis?

very rare- all patients have high proviral load

16

What is seen histologically with myositis?

looks like an inclusion body myositis, lyphocytic infiltration of muscle

17

What lung diseases are seen with HTLV1?

alveolitis and bronchiectasis

18

How much does the 10m timed walk deteriorate by per annum with HAM?

4 seconds

19

How does HAM prgress

slowly

20

What is seen on MR imaging in HAM?

very atrophic- loss of volume

21

What is HTLV1 assocaited bronchiectasis assocaited with?

HTLV1 associated inflammatory disease but not ATLL

22

Which area of the body is initially spared in HAM?

upper limbs and sensory

23

What does the leg pain in HAM resemble?

sciatica

24

What is seen histologically with HAM?

lymphocytic infiltration initially CD4>CD8 than CD8 predominante and then atrophy

25

What is a biomarker of HAM and its severity?

beta2 microglobulin

26

What is the difference between the CD4 and CD8 cells seen in HAM compared with otehr neurological disease?

the ratio isn't different but CD4 DR+ and CD8 DR+ increased- high levels of T cell acitvation

27

What is a disease assocaited with HTLV1 in the eyes?

uveitis

28

When do patients with HTLV1 set their proviral load?

around 4 months after infection

29

What is the general proviral load of most asymptomatic carriers of HTLV1?

within 1%

30

Where does the proviral load of patients with HAM cluster?

around 10%

31

Over what proviral load does the irsk of HAM increase?

>1%

32

How many asymptomatic carriers have a high PVL?

50%

33

What is the risk of HAM if PVL>1%?

6%

34

Why is B2M a useful biomarker?

it can be used to differentiate between HAM and other neuro disease; and differentiates between patients with a high PVL and hAM

35

What happens to T cell activation as PVL increases?

increases as well

36

What happens to T cell activation in HAM compared with high PVL?

increased in HAM

37

What are the markers used to identify patients iwth HAM?

HTLV-1 PVL; CD4/CD25; CD4/HLADR; CD8/HLA-DR; B2 microglobulin

38

How successful are the markers used for identifying HAM?

idetndies 90% of HAM patients but also 6% of AC that have HAM-like phenotype

39

What is expressed in macrophages and microglia in neuroinflammation?

translocator protein (TSPO)

40

What is TSPO used for?

PET imaging to investigate disease invovling microglial activation and/or macrophage recruitment

41

How did TPSO uptake correlate with HAM disease?

with clinical severity and T cell activation markers

42

Where is there especially high uptake of TPSO in HAM patients?

brainstem and thalamus