HTN Day 1 Flashcards Preview

Pharm II MHM - FINAL > HTN Day 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in HTN Day 1 Deck (33):
1

Types of diuretics

1. Thiazides
2. Loop
3. K+ sparing (aldosterone blockers & K+ sparing)

2

Which ACE-I is available IV?

Enalapril

3

What is unique regarding captopril?

(ACE-I)
-Must dose 2-3x/day
-Must take on empty stomach

4

What is the only direct renin inhibitor?

Aliskiren

5

MOA of thiazides

Inhibit Na reabsorption in DCT

6

MOA of loop diuretics

Inhibit active transport of Na, Cl, K in ascending Loop of Henle (causing excretion)

7

MOA of aldosterone blockers

-Compete w/aldosterone
-Prevent Na reabsorption and K excretion

8

MOA of K+ sparing diuretics

-Block Na reabsorption and K excretion
-INDEPENDENT of aldosterone

9

MOA of ACE-I

-Inhibit ACE which blocks production of AT II
-Results in lack of bradykinin breakdown (vasodilator)
-Dilate efferent arteriole of kidney

10

MOA of calcium channel blockers

Inhibits Ca influx (contraction) of cardiac/vascular smooth muscle

11

Types of Ca channel blockers

1. Dihydropyridines
2. Non-dihydropyridines

12

MOA of dihydropyridines

Inhibits Ca influx into VASCULAR smooth muscle

13

MOA of non-dihydropyridines

Inhibits Ca influx into CARDIAC smooth muscle

14

Dihydropyridine drug examples:

Amlodipine (Norvasc)
Nifedipine

15

Non-dihydropyridine drug examples:

Verapamil
Diltiazem

16

First line options for HTN:

1. Thiazide diuretics
2. ACE-I
3. ARBs
4. Ca Channel blockers

17

Which drugs are first line for HTN in DM and CKD patients?

ARBs and ACE-I

18

How do thiazides affect electrolytes?

DECREASE K, Na
INCREASE Ca, gluc, uric acid

19

How do loop diuretics affect electrolytes?

DECREASE everything (K, Na, Ca, Mg) EXCEPT uric acid

20

Which drugs should be given cautiously with sulfa allergic pts?

Thiazides
Loop diuretics

21

What is a rare but serious ADE of ACE-I and ARBs?

Angioedema

22

What is spironolactone commonly used for?

Class IV heart failure
(Aldosterone blocker diuretic)

23

How are K+ sparing diuretics used for HTN?

In combo w/thiazides

24

Which drug can be used for migraine prophylaxis?

-Verapamil (non-dihydro CCB)
-Can cross BBB

25

Drug examples of aldosterone blocker diuretics:

Spironolactone
Eplerenone

26

Drug examples of K+ sparing diuretics:

Triamterene
Amiloride

27

What are examples of ARBs?

Losartan
Valsartan

28

Which drugs have interactions with K+ supplements, sparing diuretics, and NSAIDs?

ACE-I
ARBs

29

Why shouldn't nifedipine be used sublingually?

Severe hypotension
Reported increase risk for MI and death

30

Which drugs can increase Lithium concentrations?

Thiazides

31

Which drugs can initially increase urination?

Thiazides

32

What are ADEs of spironolactone?

Gynecomastia in men
Menstrual irregularities

33

Which drugs can cause hyperkalemia?

K+ sparing diuretics
ACE-I
ARBs