Flashcards in HUEC MGT - Exam #2 (Part 1) Deck (150)
What is Negotiation?
→ Any interaction with a human!
-Two or more parties
What is Collaborative Negotiation?
“win-win” negotiation – Sustains relationships! ;
-ONLY type that is really good for business negotiations
What is Competitive Negotiation?
-Do whatever it takes to win, regardless of relationships or means of achieving;
-Winner takes all negotiation → Can damage relationships
What makes a good negotiator?
-Integrity → honest and fair
-Thinking under stress
-General Practical Sense
-Ability to gain respect→ Need to get people to listen!
-Team leadership skills
-Ability to exploit power
What is NOT a necessity to be a good negotiator?
**POSITION and EDUCATION level were NEVER included
What are Negotiation Skills?
-Developing ability to resolve disputes, conflicts;
-Effective = must be willingness to work with other people to reach solution everyone can live with
What is the key to effective Negotiation?
What is involved in Speaking?
-Explanation of problem from each perspective
oWhat are you interests?
oWhat do you have to gain?
oWhat can you lose?
-Think through what will be said!
What is involved in Listening?
-ACTIVE process → Need to focus on other person and understand what they are saying! Required to determine cooperative solutions ;
-Concentrate on other person → Good eye contact, positive and open body language;
-Encourage other to share thoughts and feelings → Don’t be the “first” person to talk ;
-Maintain eye contact;
-Repeat understanding of what is said
What indicates Understanding during negotiation?
-Common understanding of each side
-Degree of eye contact
What is PRE-Negotiation Planning?
-PREPARE, PREPARE PREPARE;
-Need to be prepared and know what you are going into;
-Negotiators with high aspirations consistently outperform those with low aspirations.;
-Think thorough and practice the conversation!;
-Need to be fluent in the conversation before it occurs
What saying is typically associated with Negotiation?
-“Knowledge is Power”
-Pie = symbol
What might be included in PRE-Negotiation Planning?
-Expert involvement required?
-Research options/issues and precedence
-Understand motivators of stakeholders
-Know impact of each option
-Summarize pros and cons
-Formulate strategy [based on research]
-Pre-meeting info dissemination
-Invite appropriate representative [with power]
-Set conducive agenda, facilities, time
-Plan for post negotiation action
-Plan for analysis of “lessons learned”
What are the Negotiation challenges in Dietetics Mgt?
-Staffing shortages …. Clinical, Foodservice
-“Make or Buy” decisions
-Trade-offs between Time, Costs and Quality … homemade rolls??
-Resource prioritizations … patient education materials? New foods for café?
-Budget cuts … Layoffs …. Who?
-Work Space and equipment needs
-Staff Management strategies
-Family and Friends
What Increases the effectiveness of a negotiation?
-Research other individual, position → KNOW who you are dealing with;
-Begin with positive overture;
-Address problems (not personalities);
-Pay attention to initial discussions and offers;
-Create trusting/open environment;
-TIP = Learn to read body language! → People can really disguise their tone of voice!
What are the components of face-to-face communication?
-Body language = 50%
-Tone of voice = 40%
-Words = 10%
What are the different types of Key Motivators?
2. Less tangible
Tangible Key Motivators?
-Workload, overtime, training, vacation;
Less Tangible Key Motivators?
-Desire to be heard, needs acknowledged;
-Save face/look good;
-Resistance to change, fear of unknown;
-Desire to satisfy their boss;
-Biases, dislikes, political, ethnic ;
What are the CHALLENGES to handling emotions during negotiation?
What are the RESPONSES to emotions during negotiation?
-Allow Venting, Probe for WHY;
-What would not be insulting?;
-Focus on issues;
Tips for Handling Emotions
-Do not lose your cool ;
-Try to defuse with acknowledgement, empathy, patience, impartiality.;
-Deal with less emotional issues first;
-Know your own “Hot Buttons”;
What is involved in Win-Win Negotiation?
-ESTABLISH RAPPORT, find common goals;
-Probe for understanding ;
-Beliefs, goals, win/win options;
-Hidden stakeholder motivators;
-Paraphrase for confirmation;
-Summarize agreement and next steps
Tips for Win-Win Negotiation
-If stalled, go back to agreement;
-Break up disagreement → Agree on one part!;
-Build on common ground;
-Avoid emotional responses (even if insulted);
-Think of what will be lost → If no agreement or can be made ;
-Consider interim options or postponement
How can providing alternatives HELP a negotiation?
Being PROACTIVE can… (Problem Seeker!);
-Help position = Having multiple offers or options can help you make your case! ;
-Makes you more flexible! And people are more willing to work with you
-Reduce wheel spinning;
- Speed decision making;
-Increase Executive appeal/credibility
What are the dangers of advancing with alternatives?
-Being premature, not well considered ;
- Intangible motivations not satisfied;
-Trust not established;
-Tip: maximize advanced dialogue with key interest groups
What are common pitfalls to avoid in Negotiating?
-Weak knowledge of key motivators! ;
-Poor handling of alternatives;
-Failure to pay attention to opponent;
-Impatience/ Poor timing;
-Allowing emotions to escalate;
-Negotiating with the un-empowered! → Only spend time negotiating with people who have the abilities to give you what you need and can make a decision! ;
-Poor close → Tell them, and then tell them what you told them!
What are the TIMING factors for negotiation?
-Minimize spontaneous negotiations;
-Watch for “bad” times to avoid;
-Seek adequate time slot;
-Take time establish rapport/ice break → Relationships matter!!;
- Establish common goals/understandings;
-Know when to be silent, “pause button”;
- Know when to close → Know when to walk away! Or when you’ve said all they are going to listen to. Don’t spin your own wheels. ;
-Know the effect of a delayed vs expedient;
-Be prepared to adjourn;
- Allow time for advanced review of key material
What is the main consideration for LOCATION of a negotiation?
*Seek a site conducive to negotiating…;
-Free from interruptions/distractions/noise → No busy meeting places; Comfortable all the way around ;
-Comfortable seating, temperature, lighting = Enough chairs Carpet, Windows;
-Appropriately equipped: flip chart, tables…;
-Calming [soft tones];
Why should you “Know the Stakes” of a negotiation?
-Anticipate potential consequences, Worst Case”;
- Dig for hidden issues [“I already told my chefs that we are not buying premade ANYTHING” or “The Department Head wants it done this way” ]
What is Self Control in a negotiation?
- Be impartial when possible;
- Maintain emotional distance;
- Know how to defuse tension;
- Know your Hot Buttons….
What is Marketing?
-The management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.;
-TO BE SUCCESSFUL, AN ENTERPRISE MUST BE AWARE OF MARKETING
What is the purpose or goal of marketing?
-Focus on identifying the NEEDS, WANTS, and DEMANDS of customers;
-Develop product/service to meet identified needs
What are the differences in Needs, Wants and Demands?
1. Need – Things required for a state of well-being;
2. Wants — socially accepted ways to meet needs;
3. Demands — wants that are supported by RESOURCES that allow the wants to be fulfilled ($$$)
What is the Marketplace?
The setting or environment (MILIEU) in which goods are exchanged
What are the 5 Marketplace Perspectives or Views?
1. Production Perspective
3. Selling Perspective
5. Social Marketing Perspective
What is PRODUCTION Perspective?
-The consumer will favor products that are readily available and affordable
EX: Group nutrition classes = more affordable than 1:1 consult!
What is PRODUCT Perspective?
The consumer will favor the product that has the most value, desirable features or best performance
What is the SELLING Perspective?
-Getting customer to purchase product;
-Convenience customer to buy not wanted or not needed
→ Direct promotion to consumers to introduce them to a product that was not being sought
What the MARKETING Perspective?
-Emphasis on consumers’ needs, wants, and demands;
→ Determining the wants and needs of the target market and developing products to satisfy those needs
What is SOCIETAL MARKETING Perspective?
-Goes beyond meeting needs of consumer;
-Related to good of SOCIETY;
-Beer manufacturer promoting the designated driver;
-Cereal box with MyPlate;
- “Fruits and Veggies – More Matters”
→ Balancing the customers’ needs for satisfaction with the organizational goal of making profit while acting in the best interest in the society
What are the Marketing roles that might be assumed by a dietician?
1. The MARKETER;
2. A CONSUMER
What might a dietician market?
-Nutritional Services (Yourself);
-Services to Clients;
-Assessment, Education, Consultation;
-New products to clients or hospital = Enteral formula, Food supplies
What might a dietitian be a consumer for?
-New products from manufacturers (FNCE) = Enteral formulas, Food supplies;
-Middlemen: individuals or groups who work in distribution channel moving the product from producer or manufacturer to the consumer
What is Mass Marketing?
*Designed to appeal to the MAJORITY of the population;
-NO differentiation among subgroups;
-Pros → Gives product variety allowing for CHANGE in preference & need over time;
-Cons → Not as effective than if it were targeted to a certain subgroup of a population
What is Target Marketing?
*Appeals to a SPECIFIC subgroup of a population;
-Ex: Vitamin Supplements
•Chewable for children
•With iron for women
•Liquids for infants
•Formulated for senior citizens
What is the difference between a MASS market, and a TARGET market?
- MASS MARKET…the population at large w/o discriminating among population subgroups;
-TARGET MARKET…unique subgroup w/in the population
What are the the 3 part of Target Marketing?
1. Market Segmentation
2. Market Targeting
3. Market Positioning
What is Market Segmentation?
1. Categorize the market! (Age, Gender, Race, Income);
2. Splitting market into groups with similar needs & characteristics → SPECIFIC to the product;
3. Products & marketing activities tailored to needs of segments → “cookies for brunettes??”, don’t be too mutually exclusive! ;
4. Segmented by lifestyle, geography, etc
What needs to be considered with Target Marketing?
“The market for products related to dietetics are limitless.”
-Traditional segments are well established.
-New markets are waiting to be discovered!
What is Market Targeting?
Now that you’ve divided the market into subgroups, it’s time to target a group!
What factors need to be considered when targeting a market?
1. Size of market segment = Whole population? Or a Small Group?
2. Anticipated growth = Is there room for growth?
3. Competition product differentiation = Don’t try and produce something that someone down the road is already into
4. Cost of resources required to develop & promote = Production and overhead are expensive → Choose ONE product
5. Return on investment = Pricing strategy → Must be profitable!
What is Market Positioning?
-The target market has been established, the product has been customized to the market, now the product must be positioned!;
-Product Positioning + Market Positioning
What is Product Positioning?
How the customers perceive the product!
What is Market Positioning?
-Determining which characteristics are most important to the target market =
1. Presentation to market
Emphasize characteristics of product/service
2. Equating product/service with benefits → Market needs to under stand the benefits or the message related to your product!
What is Market Research?
Process of collecting data about customers and competitors;
-Involves PRIMARY and SECONDARY research;
1. To learn about potential markets
2. Find out what consumers want, need, and demand
What is Primary Research?
Original research that YOU pull together!;
-Gathering first hand data; questionnaires, focus groups;
What is Secondary Research?
Research taken from already established sources!
-Gathering existing data; trade journals, government statistics;
-Information from libraries, business publications, the internet, etc.;
-Usually, if not always, free!
What are the 3 steps of Market Research?
1. Needs identification→ What do you need to know about the customers/competitor’s/market trends/products?
2. Information gathering→ DO the research
3. Data analysis→ Learn from the research and apply it to your market!
What is Needs Identification?
(Step 1 of Market Research):
Helps avoid information overload! → Must be selective in information that is chosen.
— Consumer Information;
— Industry Information
What Consumer Information is established in Needs Identification?
→ Who the market might be!
= Age, gender, lifestyle, background, economic status, family composition, cultural, occupation, education, health, wellness, nutrition, residence, beliefs, attitudes
What Industry Information is established in Needs Identification?
→ Competition?! What products and services are already out there?! What is there price?
= Competition, products/services, market penetration, market share, price, growth, market channels
What is Information Gathering?
(Step 2 of Market Research) = Now that you’ve identified the needs, time to collect the data!:
-Primary Data and
What is Data Analysis?
(Step 3 of Market Research) =
-Compilation and analysis of primary and secondary data;
-Determines what an organization’s marketing mix will be.
What is Marketing Mix?
-Combo that contribute to marketing of a product;
- "4 P’s" centered around the target market =
What is a Product?
ANYTHING that can be offered to the market in order to satisfy a need, want and demand of consumers → Want + Need + Demand;
What are Goods?
Products that are…
- Tangible product
- Ownership transferred from provider to customer
What are the types of Goods?
1. DURABLE – Long life span; Have an usual life expectancy measured in YEARS.
Examples: vehicles, foodservice appliances, furniture
2. NONDURABLE (used up) – Short life span; Have a usual life expectancy measured in DAY, MONTHS, or a FEW YEARS.
Examples: dishes, uniforms, canned and paper goods
3. PERISHABLES – spoil very rapidly
What are Services?
-Intangible products; providing or during a job for another;
- 4 characteristics:
4. Service Perishability
** Differentiate services from goods (tangible/durable)
What is Intangible (services)?
-Cannot be seen, touched or held before they are purchased;
-Client often receives something tangible to represent service either before or after the service is rendered
What is Inseparable (services)?
-Product cannot be separated from its provider;
-EX: Assessment = RD/RDN
What is Variability (services)?
*Variable Services = not uniform;
-Factors influencing variability:
1. service provider
3. circumstances under which the service takes place
What is Perishability (services)?
- Services cannot be stored for future use;
-Must be accepted when it is delivered or it is lost.;
-Accommodations for consumer demands
What are Combination Products?
-Combination of goods and services as a product.;
— food is a good (tangible)
— serving of the food is a service (intangible)
What are places?
What are ideas and information?
What are the qualities of a PRODUCT?
-Should satisfy needs of customer;
-Includes range of factors…
What is PLACE?
-Getting product to consumer
-Can range from a store, to a clinic, to a restaurant, mail order, internet/e-commerce is getting huge!
Placement of goods takes advantage of...
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS = how the goods/services get to the customer!
- Direct marketing channel
What are Direct Marketing Channels?
-Product distributed directly to end user without aid of middleman
What are Middlemen?
- Being that distributes product between manufacturer and end user;
-Some transactions involve three or more middlemen;
-Essential part of distribution channels
Differences in Middlemen?
All middlemen are not alike;
Other names for middlemen = Wholesaler, retailer, distributor, agent, broker
What are the types of Distribution Systems?
1. Retail Distribution
2. Wholesale Distribution
3. Service Distribution
What is Retail Distribution?
- Retail involves an organization or individual who sells products directly to the end user of the product;
-Standard: Retail store;
-Also includes hospitals, hotels, and banks
What is Wholesale Distribution?
-Company buys products from producer or grower and sells to the retailer, who then sells product to end user.;
-Wholesaler = middleman;
-Dietetic practitioners who work in foodservice are likely to purchase from wholesalers.
What is Service Distribution?
-Involves fewest amount of middlemen;
-Takes into consideration the placement of services where consumers have easy access, and are likely to be
What is PRICE?
-PRICE to client/customer – cost of the product to the consumer;
-Only component of marketing mix associated with revenue;
-Involves strategies of determining cost of products
What are the components that determine PRICE?
-Cost to produce;
-Willingness of customer to pay
What is considered in Pricing Strategy?
1. Objective of the organization;
2. Cost of producing product;
Pricing and Cost of production?
-Goal to breakeven, need to rid inventory of old product, improving cash flow, etc.;
-Actual costs of producing the product MUST be calculated
How does Psychology affect pricing?
-Pricing according to customers expectations;
-Pricing items just under an even dollar amount
-Odd numbers in pricing are associated with value
What might customers’ expectations be?
-Higher prices for fine-dining = Clean linens, fresh flowers, formally dressed and attentive wait-staff;
-Dinner vs. Lunch;
-Weekday vs. weekend sales;
-Seasonal specials & returned goods;
What is PROMOTION?
-Communicating information about the product to the customer;
- Raise awareness;
- Encourage sales;
- Create or change a brand image;
- Maintain market share
What are the techniques for PROMOTION?
What is Advertising?
-Carrying message about product to wide segment of population
- Target marketing to specific audiences;
-Placing ads in specific location
Method of Advertising
-Print, radio, TV, Internet
-One way communication
What is Personal Selling?
-One on One;
-MOST EFFECTIVE form of promotion;
-Encourages two-way communication;
-Usually customers listen because it is polite;
-Can be expensive;
-Expense is in training staff members in representing attributes of the organization and product worth.
What is Sale Promotion?
-Use of tools to attract customer’s attention;
-Games, prizes, coupons, reduced-price sales;
-Focus is on immediate sales;
When is Sale Promotion used?
-Downturns in the overall economy;
-Introduce new product;
What is Public Relations?
-RD at triathlon;
-Involves news story or photograph
Advantages/Disadvantages of Public Relations
Advantages= More believable than advertising; No monitory compensation involved;
Disadvantage = No control of what is said or placement of the advertisement
What is Merchandising?
-Physical display of product to the customer;
-Consideration is given to placement of product;
-Products placed in enticing ways to attract customers
Ex. Placement of sweetened cereals to target children
-Sweet cereal on bottom shelf;
-High-fiber cereal on top shelf
What is Marketing overall?
-Years of education and practice to master
-Based on organization philosophy
-Backed by market research
-Focused on meeting the needs of a target market!
What is Product-Lifecycle?
*Sales should increase overtime
How is a stronger market position created?
-Market research suggested development of variants low risk;
-Prospect of good rate of return;
-Extending brand with huge consumer support;
-Judgment proved correct…;
What are the types of workers?
What is a Professional job?
-Extensive FORMAL education
-Knowledge and skills to learn other jobs
-EX: Dieticians and Physicians
What is Specialization of a Profession?
-More proficient in selected area
-Some practical/basic skills lost
-Management in specialty
-Knowledge ≠ proficiency
-PROFICIENCY…mastery of technique
What is a Supervisor?
-Oversees and directs work of subordinates and responsible for own;
-Responsible for output;
-Responsibility and authority
What is a Skilled worker?
– Special training or skill to perform a specific job;
-On-the-job or technical training;
-Require some supervision;
-Do NOT need to be micromanaged;
-EX: Cooks, Exterminators, Secretaries
What is an Unskilled worker?
– Brings no marketable skill to the job;
-Often know more about job;
-Management should solicit input;
-EX: Cashiers, Food Service Workers
What are the different categories of Employment status?
-There are no set standards;
What is Full-Time?
FULL-TIME = Usually 40 hours per week;
-2080 hours per year (40 x 52);
-8 hours per day;
-4 days @ 10 hours;
-4 days @ 9 hours, 1 day @ 4 hours
What are the types of partial employment?
-Short-Hour – < 20 hrs/week
-Part-time – Anything < 40 hrs/week
-Casual – prn = work as needed
What is Job Sharing?
-Two or more individuals perform a full-time position;
-Advantages: two for one;
-Disadvantages: continuity, less productive
What is Probation?
-Employee can be dismissed from the job WITHOUT cause and are not 100% hired until after the period → typically last about 60-90 days to determine if an employee truly fits the position and can do the job ;
-After this probationary time period, CAUSE is required to dismiss an employee (lots of paperwork!
What are Contingent Employees?
Only used for temporary employment to complete a job or project
— Contract –
— Temporary –
What are Contract Employees?
What are Temporary Employees?
What is an Hourly Worker?
-Paid a set rate for each hour worked, which is at least minimum wage → NON-Exempt;
-Base rate = hourly rate of pay
-Time is tracked – time clock or time sheets;
-Salaries can increase or decrease depending on how many hours worked (late to work, leaves early, differential wages)
What is a Salaried Worker?
-An employee who has a set, usually annual salary and is expected to work until the job is completed → EXEMPT;
-Paid for doing a job until it is completed;
-Usually a 40 hour work week with fluctuations;
-Managers should monitor workers hours to avoid illness, burnout, or attrition
What are Differential Wages?
-Changes in the rate of pay
-Method to reimburse hourly workers
-Should be mandated by law, contract, or policy
-Most common differential wage rate: overtime
What is Double-Back differential pay?
Additional pay earned if less than a minimum period of time elapse between the time an employee completes a shift and the next shift begins
What is Double-Time differential pay?
-Pay earned at twice the base pay;
-Used if an employee works excessively long hours or for many consecutive days;
-Sometimes for overtime on a holiday
What is Hazard pay?
Additional pay given to a n employee for hours worked performing particularly hazardous or distasteful tasks
What is Holiday Pay?
Premium pay for time worked for working on an employer-designated holiday
What is Overtime pay?
Additional pay for hours worked in excess of full-time; Often this is more than 8 hours a day or 40 hours in a week
What is Pay in Lieu of Benefits?
Addition to the base pay rate earned by employees who are NOT eligible for benefits
What is Shift Differential?
Additional pay for employees who work evenings or night or who come to work very early in the mornings may be paid for all or part of a shift
What is Split Shift?
Additional pay for working a shirt that is NON-continuous or “split” into two distinct blocks of time
What is Time and a Half?
Pay rate of 150% of base rate for overtime
What is differential for Work in a Higher Job Class?
Employee is paid at the rate for the job performed rather than at that employee’s usual base pay
What is differential for Work in a Lower Job Class?
Employee earns the usual base rate, even though a lower-rate job is performed
What is Compensatory Time Off?
-Method used to compensate for unpaid overtime hours
-Employees are allowed to take off for the hours they work that are greater than 40 in a week
-Potential for abuse, so policies must be clear → Make all KTE approved by manager/supervisor in advance
-Employer decides compensatory time
What is On-Call?
-When employees must be available to come into work on short notice
-Usually an acute healthcare position
-May be Dietitians on weekends
-Should be included in job description
-Method of pay varies
What are Full-Time Equivalents?
-A standard term used to describe the number of full-time positions worked by all employees;
-One FTE = 40 hours per week, or 2080 hours per year;
-Number of FTEs measure span of control for manager
What are FTEs used for?
-Form a budget
-Determine effect of change
-Determine appropriate staffing levels
FTEs used for Budgeting
FTE = 40hrs/wk.
-Used for budgeting
— 25 @ 40 hrs. = 1000 hrs.
— 5 @ 20 hrs. = 100 hrs.
— 10 @ 16 hrs. = 160 hrs.
— Total = 1260 hours
= 1,260 hrs. ÷ 40 hrs. = 31.5 FTEs
— 40 employees = 31.5 FTEs
What are the FTE implications for Managers?
-Span of control
What is Diversity?
-Integration of diverse workers into the workplace in a unifying way;
-Goal = strengthen the organization; to provide a work environment where everyone is a contributing member of the workforce
What is a Multicultural Organization?
…values, encourages, and affirms
1. diverse cultural modes
2. each point of view is valid
3. different cultures contribute
What are the PRIMARY dimensions of diversity?
What are SECONDARY dimensions of diversity?
SECONDARY…learned or earned
What are the legislative initiatives that have taken place to promote diversity?
1. Ethnic/National Origin, Race, Religion & Sex Discrimination
2. Rehabilitation Act of 1973
3. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) – Requires reasonable accommodations be made for disabled workers
4. The Age Discrimination Act of 1975
5. The Age Discrimination Act of 1967
What is the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission?
– Treat all job candidates equally
What is Affirmative Action?
Gives hiring preference to underrepresented workers
What are the benefits of Diversity?
-Larger labor pool
-Breadth of experience
-Opportunities for growth
-Responsive to greater community
What are drawbacks of Diversity?
-Xenophobia – fear of strangers or foreigners; feeling threatened by those that are different ;
-Sabotage new workers;
-Employees refuse to change;
-Unpleasant work environment;
→ Takes time, energy and money to implement programs for employees to overcome biases and deal with diverse people