HUEC MGT - Exam #1 (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

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1

What are the two basic types of decisions?

1. Programmed
2. Non-programmed
— Different levels of management tend to make different types of decisions in the workplace…

2

What are Structured Problems?

-Predictable, routine, day-to-day activity;
-Info to make decision readily available
EX: Structured Decision
•Employee does not report to work
•List employees able to do job
•Determine availability of each
•Those not already scheduled
•Seniority
•Call
•Fill position w/first available

3

What are Programmable Decisions?

-Rely on precedent;
-Decisions made routinely, can become automatic;
-Info transferred from one situation to another;
-Procedure written as rule, regulation;
-Learned behavior
EX: Programmable Decision
•Employee slips and falls at work
— Act within 7 calendar days
— Is case recordable
— Is case new or recurring
— Establish if work related
— Determine correct OSHA form

4

What is on the OSHA Form 301 - Injury and Illness Incident Report

-Name, address, demographic;
-Information about health care;
-Information about case;
-What was employee doing…;
-What happened…;
-Injury or illness…;
-Object or substance causing harm;
-Death? When?

5

What are Unstructured Problems?

-New, unusual, unpredictable;
-Since these problems rarely occur, there is often not protocol on how to fix the problem;
-Little precedent, no written guidelines;
-Managers must be conceptual in solving this type of problem;
-Require non-programmed decisions

6

What are Non-Programmable Decisions?

-Needed → Research, collaboration with others, creativity;
-Unstructured problems
•more prevalent in newer operations,
•situations without institutional memory,
•in times of frequent, rapid change
•in changes of managerial structure

7

How are decisions correlated with management levels?

-FRONTLINE managers = PROGRAMMED decisions;
-Most NON-programmed decisions made by UPPER-LEVEL MANAGERS

8

Who are Problem Avoiders?

-person does not recognize a problem;
-or, sees no urgency to address it;
-or, chooses to avoid it;
-Person knows a decision must be made but, puts it off … “decidophobia” …;
-makes the choice not to make a decision

9

Who are Problem Solvers?

→ REACTIVE;
-Does not withdraw;
-Reactive…acts on obvious problems after the fact;
-Recognizes that a problem exists;
-Fixes it in a timely manner … as occurs;
-But, does not seek out other problems …;
-“If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”

10

Who are Problem Seekers?

→ PROACTIVE ;
-Proactive and deals with potential problems before they become obvious;
-Constantly “tweaking”;
-Great contingency planners (future);
-Solutions = ready in advance;
-Downside: employees must constantly adapt to change and can lead to stress ….pacing = important

11

What are Directive decision makers?

-Efficient , logical, requiring little information;
-Few alternatives;
-Low tolerance for ambiguity

12

What are Conceptual decision makers?

-Open to new ideas;
-Looking at many alternatives;
-High tolerance for ambiguity;
-Relying on instinct versus logic, reason

13

What are Analytic decision makers?

-Enjoys solving problems;
-Likes to seek alternatives, information;
-Can tolerate ambiguity;
-Applies rational, methodical approach to solve problems

14

What are Behavioral decisions makers?

-Uses intuition, feelings, and perceptions versus actual data
-Dislikes ambiguity

15

Where is Risk found in decision making?

-Risk: Reward ratio;
-Risk;
-Certainty;
-Uncertainty

16

What is Calculated Risk?

Information collected that will help to determine the probable outcomes for each of idea

17

What causes a HIGH degree of Risk?

-Little relevant data + Unknown probable outcomes = high degree of risk;
-Wondrously successful? Dismal Failure?

18

What causes a LOW degree of Risk?

Large amounts of data + known probable outcomes = low degree of risk

19

What are the types groups that need to make decisions?

Task forces, committees – scholarships, internship selection/review panels, TQM teams, clinical nutrition staff, RDs for CPEU learning;
-Can either be transient (temp) or on-going

20

What is Accommodation?

-Members of a group feel need to accept the position of dominant member;
-May look like consensus,;
-Maybe unwilling to speak up

21

What are De Factor Decisions?

-Made passively with no obvious objections expressed;
-Why are these decisions accepted?
-Disinterest;
-Lack of Urgency;
-Uncertainty;
-Members are bored;
-Lack of assertiveness;
-Time constraints

22

What is Groupthink?

-Cohesiveness of group more important than the problem;
-Members avoid disagreements within the group;
-Why? = members feel loyal to each other, may not want to jeopardize unity by expressing opposing opinions

23

What are the RISKS in Group decision making?

-Shared risk = more willingness to take risks;
-Groups = take BIGGER risks than individual;
-Information pool is LARGER

24

How is group decision making maximized?

-Brainstorming
-Nominal group technique
-Delphi technique

25

What is Brainstorming?

-INFORMAL;
-open-forum;
-all members participate;
-many ideas → LARGEST Number;
-no criticizing ideas

26

What is the Nominal Group Technique?

-Methodical, rational approach;
-Each member contributes ideas;
-Alternatives are ranked
→ FORMAL process, 4 steps
1.Problems are presented and written down
2.Ideas are presented
3.Group discussion
4.Ranking

27

What is the Delphi Technique?

-Group decision similar to nominal group;
-Members do not meet;
-Communicate and analyze ideas through written communication until consensus is reached
→ FORMAL process, Steps
1.Questionnaire sent to members for idea generation
2.Results are compiled and sent out
3.Members submit feedback
4.Repeated until consensus is met

28

How much time do managers spend communicating?

-We all communicate
-Effective communication is critical
-Requires constant attention
**Managers spend 50% of time communication

29

What is Effective Communication?

...process of sending…message…in such a way… message received is
as close in meaning as possible to message intended…

30

What is being Effective in terms of communication?

*Producing decided, desired, decisive, effect;
—Decided…free from doubt or wavering;
— Decisive…resolute, determined, unmistakable;
— Effect…accomplishment, outward sign, appearance