Human activity, biodiversity and sustainability Flashcards
Why has there been a reduction in natural ecosystems/biodiversity?
Increasing stress on resources/environmental systems e.g. water, air and land.
Population growth and economic development - particularly over the last 200 years.
What did the 1972 ‘The Limits to Growth’ scientific report state?
Predicted that at some time during the 21st century, the world’s carrying capacity would be reached.
Population growth/economic activity would result in disastrous consequences for the Earth.
What did the 1992 ‘Beyond the Limits’ report state?
‘Overshooting crucial resources e.g. food and water’.
‘Overwhelming nature with pollutants such as those causing global warming’,
What did the 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment state?
Humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively over the past 50 years than ever before, to meet growing demands for food, fresh water, timbre, fibre and fuel.
This has resulted in a substantial loss of diversity of life on Earth.
1/3 plant species globally threatened.
Climate change - could result in the extinction of up to 1 million species by 2050.
What did the 2007 ‘List of Threatened Species’ state?
39% of more than 41,000 species tested could be threatened by extinction in the next few decades.
How have environmental issues become more politically important?
Global, national and local levels.
Sustainable development argued.
Government international organisations e.g. United Nations. are working to educate people, protect ecosystems and support sustainable development.
Global warming discussed - biggest challenge.
How has global warming had a political impact? (1997)
1997 Kyoto conference - resulted in most industrialised countries agreeing to cut their CO2 emissions by 30% by 2010.
First step towards a global agreement to protect the environment.
‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ was signed - objectives to conserve and sustainably use biological diversity whilst fairly sharing the benefits of the use of genetic resources.
How has global warming had a political impact regarding the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development?
Keys issues were sustainable management of the global resource base, poverty eradication and better healthcare.
First - resolved to strengthen efforts to halt biodiversity loss by 2010.
Second two - ways in which global population growth could be reduced.
What did the UK do regarding protecting the environment? 5
1994 UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP).
Set aims/activities to cover 20 years.
1. Protecting the best sites for wildlife - around 10% of the UK has been designated as SSSI, or ASSI.
2. Targeting action for priority species/habitats - 2007 UK Biodiversity Partnership published 1,150 priority species and 65 habitats to focus on for the next decade.
3. Embedding consideration of biodiversity and ecosystem services in all sections of policy and decision making.
4. Encouraging people to change their behaviour in relation to environmental issues.
5. Ensuring that the UK plays a proactive role in the development of multilateral environmental agreements, and implementing them within the UK.