Human Development and Growth, Brandt Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Psych exam I > Human Development and Growth, Brandt > Flashcards

Flashcards in Human Development and Growth, Brandt Deck (66):
1

key points in development

emotional well being
eriksons stages personality development
piagets stages cognitive development
stranger and separatino anxiety
object permanence
attachment
temperament

2

growth faltering (failure to thrive)

infants whose weight height and head circumference are below age related growth norms

3

what environment can cause failure to thrive in an infant

disturbed parent-child relationship
unhappy marriage or parental psychological disturbance
may cause lasting cognitive and emotional difficulties

4

crisis and strength of infancy

crisis: basic trust vs basic mistrust
strength: hope

5

crisis and strength of early childhoof

crisis: autonomy vs shame and doubt
strength: will

6

crisis and strength of play age

crisis: initiative vs guilt
strength: purpose

7

crisis and strength of school age

industry vs inferiority
strength: competence

8

crisis and strength of adolescence

identity vs role confusion
strength: fidelity

9

crisis and strength of young adulthood

intimacy vs isolation
strength: love

10

crisis and strength of adulthood

generativity vs stagnation
strength: care

11

crisis and strength of old age

integrity vs despair
strength: wisdom

12

what is the trust vs mistrust stage

infancy
depends on how well needs are met by caregiver

13

what is the autonomy vs shame and doubt stage

toddlers
develop independence and autonomy if allowed to explore
shame or doubt if restricted and overprotected

14

stanger anxiety

infants when encountering unfamiliar person
8-10 mo

15

separation anxiety

distress when customary care provider departs 6-8 mo and peaks 14-18 mo

16

object permanence

understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight
complete by 8-12 mo and established by 12-18 mo

17

incomplete object permanence looks like what

children look for item where it was last seen instead of using interference to find where it has been moved

18

attachment

when attached to give person feel pleasure when with them and comforted by their prescence

19

Ainsworth strange situation

staged episodes that illustrate strength of attachment between child and (typically) his or her mother

20

Secure attachment pattern

style of attachment in which children use the mother as a kind of home base and are at ease when she is present; when she eaves they become upset and go to her as soon as she returns

21

milestones for toddlers 18 mo to 2 yr

start to move away from primary caregiver
2 yr olds say "NO"
rapproachement: run off but quickly return to mom

22

what can cause reactive attachment disorder of infancy/early childhood

really poor care of abuse

23

types of attachment disorder of infancy/early childhood

inhibited: child withdrawn or unresponsive
disinhibited: child approaches and cuddles up to strangers

24

goal of Tx with reactive attachment disorder of infancy

help them form a bond to one caregiver

25

Temperament

patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual

26

types of attachment

avoidant
secure
ambivalent
disorganized disoriented

27

avoidant attachment classification

low- seek proximity with caregiver
low- maintain contact with caregiver
high- void proximity with caregiver
low- resist contact with caregiver

28

secure attachment classification

high- seek proximity
high- maintain contact
low- avoid
low- resist

29

ambivalent attachment classification

high- seek proximity
high- maintain contact
low- avoid
high- resist

30

disorganized disoriented attachment classification

inconsistent in all categories

31

What are the dimensions of temperament

activity level
approach-withdrawal
adaptability
quality of mood
attention span and persistence
distractibility
rhythmicity
intensity reaction
threshold responsiveness

32

What are the dimensions of temperament

activity level
approach-withdrawal
adaptability
quality of mood
attention span and persistence
distractibility
rhythmicity
intensity reaction
threshold responsiveness

33

easy babies

babies with positive disposition, body functions to operate regularly and are adaptable

34

difficult babies

negative moods and slow to adapt to new situations

35

slow to warm babies

babies who are inactive, calm reactions to environment
moods negative and withdraw from new situations

36

goodness of fit

development is dependent on degree of match between childrens temperament and nature and demands of environment

37

characteristic of development least related to attachment to caregiver

temperament

38

initiative versus guilt stage

chilren 3-6 y.o
experience conflict between independence of action and sometimes negative results of that action

39

functional vs constructive play

functional-repetitive activities of 3 y.o
constructive- manipulate objects to produce or build something (tests physical and cognitive skills and practice fine muscle movements)

40

make believe play

children grow cognitively and learn about important activites in culture
toddlers need encouragement to participate in imaginative make-believe play
mothers and siblings play important role

41

preschooler theory of mind

understand other have emotions
can distinguish between something in their minds and physical actuality
at end of preschool years solve false belief problems

42

preschooler theory of mind

understand other have emotions
can distinguish between something in their minds and physical actuality
at end of preschool years solve false belief problems

43

4 facotrs influencing cognitive behavior of Piagets theory

maturation nervous system
experience
social transmission of information
equilibration

44

describe equilibration as piagets theory

innate tendency for mental growth to progress to increasingly complexity and stability

45

stages of piaget

sensorimotor (first 2 yr)
preoperational (2-6)
concrete (6-11)
formal (11+)

46

what are the components of sensorimotor stage cognitive development

language acquisition
symbolic reasoning
egocentrism
transductive thinking
magical thinking

47

what are the components of concrete operations stage of cognitive development

logical cause/effect thinking
reversibility of events
social speech
ability to take others point of view
conservation of volume and quantity
rigid interpretation of the rules

48

what are the components of formal operational thinking in cognitive development

abstract reasoning
more elaborate information processing
metacognitive capacity
can grasp probabilities
hypothetical thinking

49

piagets definition of symbolic function

ability to use mental symbol, word or object to represent something that is not physically present

50

piagets opinion of language

allows children to think beyond the present to the future

51

concept of centration

concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects

52

concept of conservation

knowledge that quantity is unrelated to arrangement and physical appearance of objects
(preschoolers don't understand that changes in appearance does not mean change in quantity)

53

concept of conservation

knowledge that quantity is unrelated to arrangement and physical appearance of objects
(preschoolers don't understand that changes in appearance does not mean change in quantity)

54

transformation

process whereby one state changed into another

55

egocentric thought

thinking that does not take viewpoints of others into account

56

intuitive thought

thinking that reflects preschoolers use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world

57

what are the developments in school age children

eriksons
freud and piaget
coping with illness
self concept
fears and anxieties

58

industry vs inferiority

industry: developing sense of competence at useful skills and tasks
inferiority: pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well. family environment, teachers and peers can contribute

59

freuds opinion of 7-11 y.o

latency, easy time for most kids

60

when do children develop concept of conservation according to piaget

7-11 y.o

61

self concept in middle childhood

refined, perspective taking
real self vs ideal self

62

fears and nxieties in middle childhood

fear of dark, thunder, lightning, supernatural beings
fear of real life personal harm

63

school phobia

5-7 yr: separation
11-13: particular aspects of school

64

identity vs role confusion in adolescence

identity: who you are and your direction in life "identity crisis"
role confusion: lack of direction and restricted exploration
unprepared for stages of adulthood

65

what is hypothetical deductive reasoning

deducing hypotheses from a general theory

66

consequences of adolescence cognitive changes

self consciousness
idealism and criticism
planning and decision making- overwhelming