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Flashcards in Human Factors 1 Deck (27):
1

What does ergonomics mean?

Ergo - work
Nomos- laws

2

Human Factors

human - machine interface
emphasize designs that reduce the potential for human error
-used in psych referring to senses/perception and decision making

3

human factors diciplines

-HF engineering
-Engineering psychology
-Human-Machine interaction
-Cognitive engineering
-industrial/organizational psychology

4

User-centered design

systems designed to fit people
-reduce training time
-minimize human error
-improve comfort, safety and productivity

5

5 words to user -centered

accuracy
self-efficacy
safety
satisfaction
speed

6

Human factors Activities

accident investigation/expert witness
simulation, virtual reality & training
occupational and public health and safety
consumer products
basic and applied research

7

design considerations

affordances
user stereotypes/expectancies
stimulus-response compatibility
cognitive ability
sensation and perceptual capabilities
user preferences

8

affordances

relation between an object and or environment and an organism that through a collection of stimuli affords the opportunity for that organism to perform an action
- orientation and or wording that afford behaviours other than those intended

9

affordances etc.

it defines how the object is to be interacted with for ex. handle on a mug
even the orientation of the mug or pot is part of the affordance
**define the interaction

10

problem with affordances

need to consider all stimuli - inconsistencies in physical and visual stimuli may lead to confusion and inappropriate responses
ex. handle usually associated with a pull not push but sign says push

11

more examples of inconsistencies

shower head - which way is to point to the cold/hot
shape and color of recycling bins
car doors
creditcard readers
opperating systems (computers)

12

False affordance

an apparent affordance that doesnt have a real function, meaning individual perceives nonexistent possibilities for action
example: placebo button (walk sign, close door on elevator)

13

placebo button

a push-button with apparent functionality that actually has no effect when pressed
-can be psychologically rewarding and give the illusion of control

14

hidden affordance

possibilities for action but they are not percieved by the individual example
opening a beer bottle with a remote control

15

User Stereotypes/Expectances

interaction with objects and or environments is impacted by prior experience - a cognitive stereotype to improve or hinder interaction

16

Positive Stereotype

increased quality and reaction time with correct object/environment response

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Negative Stereotype

decreased quality and increased reaction time when similar object/environment but not same response required

18

Road-User Expectancy

expect a light to go green-yellow-red
adjust speed going into a curve based on experience with other curves

19

Road-User Expectancy

more experience the greater expectancy which can be good and bad
more driving leads to quicker more accurate reactions as long as the expectation is met

20

Road- User Expectancy

sudden changes in conditions violates expectancy and increases likelihood of driver error and increases reaction time becauase the driver takes longer to understand the situation

21

Considering Human Factors in Road Design

-avoid designing roads with sharp curves just over a crest of a hill
-place signs at locations where drivers expect and can see them

22

Stimulus-Response compatibility

the degree to which a person's perception of the world is compatible with the required action
-described as the naturalness of the association between stimulus and its response
such as a left orientated stim requiring response from the left side

23

Studies about S-R compatibility

rely on natural affordances and stereotype expectancies to determine the natural human decision making
spatial mapping versus color mapping

24

examples of S-R

the dials on your stove not intuitively matching up to the burner (lack of natural mapping)

25

cognitive ability relies on

the type, timing and amount of stimulus present the cognitive fatigue, age, and other contextual factors

26

sensation and perceptual capabilities

deals with how stimuli is delt with by the senses
-determined by visual complexity

27

user preferences

the beaten path