Human Factors 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Human Factors 4 Deck (29):
1

Hs = Ht = Hr

Hs: stimulus information
Ht: information transmitted by operator
Hr= response information

2

Reaction time - Hick's Law

the more things you have to think about the slower the reaction time = therefore the slower you are

3

Human information processing model

1.sensory processing
2. perception
3. memory and cognition
4. response selection & execution
5. feedback
6. attention

4

sensory processing

convert physical energy to electrical energy and send to brain

5

temporary storage

visual (iconic) - 100ms-500ms
auditory (echoic) 3-5 secs - requires more processing so lasts longer

6

range of sensitivity

expressed from the smallest detectable to the largest tolerable without pain

7

just-noticable difference

smallest diffference between two stimuli that can be detected

8

working memory

rehersal, reasoning, or image transformation
30 sec
info actively processed

9

long-term memory

material rehearsed in working memory can become long term memory
semantic memory , knowledge of the world, symbols, concepts
episodic memory

10

perception

decoding the meaning of raw sensory data

11

top-down

perception of objects based on expectation and context

12

bottom-up

perception is based on sensory system first
you get the little sensory pieces your brain puts them together and you see the big picture

13

guidlines in perception for human factors

max bottom-up processing
max automaticity and by using familiar perceptual representation
max top-down processing when bottom-up might be poor

14

max bottom-up processing

high visibility, legibility, audibility
prevent confusion due to similar messages etc

15

max automaticity

use familiar perceptual representation
familiar fonts, language , meaningful icons and symbols

16

max top=down (when bottom-up might be poor)

max discriminating features
create context
exploit redundancy - both visual and auditory displays
use smaller vocab
be wary of possible perceptual errors

17

response and execution

understanding is through perception then cognition will trigger a response
followed by execution - requiring motor effort

18

signal detection theory

2 discrete states of the world are not easily discriminable
-signal present or absent

19

signal detection theory

investigate thresholds of detection

20

most likely response

more likely to detect a signal that is present then to detect that there is not a signal

21

things that affect response

-context
-personality type
-risk reward or pay off

22

discriminability index

how good you are at identifying it
low signal to noise ratio

23

risk for reward

giving an intervention who doesn't need it isn't bad
but not giving the intervention to someone who is at risk then its the worst

24

criteria for signal detection theory to work

physiological - sensory organs can pick up signal
identification - identify as a stimulus
detection - discriminate signal from the noise
recognition - correctly classify it

25

sensitivity

true yes

26

specificity

true no

27

signal to noise ratio

high = large discriminability index
low= low discriminability index

28

positive stereotype/expectancy

reaction happens faster and improved quality

29

negative stereotype

increased reaction time and decreased quality