Human Reproduction Flashcards Preview

Life Sciences Paper 1 > Human Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Human Reproduction Deck (49):
1

Scrotum

Contains the testes

2

Testis

The oval structures suspended outside the body in the scrotum

3

Epididymus

A highly convoluted tubule about 5m long, formed by the joining of seminiferous tubules

4

Vas deferens (sperm duct)

Muscular duct which is a continuation of the epididymus

5

Urethra

Duct at the end of the iron-genital system leading to the exterior

6

Prostate gland

Plum-sized gland surrounding the urethra at the base of the bladder

7

Ovaries

Two almond shaped organs found in the pelvic cavity and held in position by ligaments

8

Uterus

Hollow, pear-shaped, thick-walled muscular organ

9

Myometrium

Thick involuntary muscle layer

10

Endometrium

Lining richly supplied with blood vessels

11

Vagina

Muscular passage between the uterus and the outside of the body

12

Clitoris

Small mass of erectile tissue found at the anterior end of the vulva

13

Puberty

The process of physical and psychological changes

14

Adolescence

Period of physical, physiological as well as psychological change

15

Oestrous

A time when females ovulate and can be impregnated

16

Celibate

Abstaining from sex

17

Gametogenesis

The formation of mature gametes (sperm and eggs) by the reproductive glands (gonads)

18

Spermatogenesis

The sequence of events during which mature, haploid sperm are produced from the germinal epithelium in the seminiferous tubules if the testes

19

Menarche

The first menstrual bleeding

20

Oogenesis

The production of haploid, mature eggs in the follicles of the ovaries

21

Ovulation

Release of a mature egg from a Graafian follicle every 28 days

22

Theca

Single layer of cells that surrounds the oogonium

23

Oogonium

Large central cell

24

Menopause

Overuse stop producing oestrogen and progesterone, therefore the ovaries stop releasing eggs and menstruation no longer occurs

25

Atrophy

Degeneration

26

HRT

Hormone replacement therapy

27

Copulation

Sexual intercourse or coitus
The transfer of sperm into the vagina of the female when the male organ, the penis, is inserted and sperm are deposited near the cervix

28

Fertilization

The fusion of the sperm nucleus with the egg nucleus to form a diploid cell known as the zygote

29

Gestation

Pregnancy
The time between conception and birth, during which the embryo and then the fortis develops into the uterus

30

Morula

Solid ball of cells formed by dividing zygote

31

Blastocyst

Hollow, fluid-filled balls of cells

32

Trophoblast

Layer formed by the outer cells forming the wall of the blastocyst

33

Implantation

Occurs when the blastocyst sinks into the thickened, highly vascular endometrium

34

Crown-rump length

Crown of head to buttocks

35

Placenta

A disc shaped temporary organ richly supplied with maternal and foetal blood vessels

36

Intra-uterine cannibalism

Embryos which feed on fertilized eggs and other developing embryos in the uterus

37

Amnion

A membrane which surrounds the developing embryo and foetus

38

Umbilical cord

A flexible cord extending from the abdomen to placenta if the foetus

39

Birth

The expulsion of the foetus, its surrounding membranes and the placenta from the uterus

40

Uterine cycle

A series of changes in the endometrium which is regulated by hormones

41

Colostrum

Watery pre-milk fluid

42

Mammary glands

Organs in female mammals that produce milk to feed young offspring

43

Lactation

Production of milk

44

Fibroids

Lumps that develop from the myometrium

45

Endometriosis

A disease in which tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside the uterus

46

Surrogate

A woman who carries a baby on behalf of future parents who are medically unable to do so

47

Foetal alcohol syndrome

A pattern of birth defects, learning and behavioral problems affecting children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy

48

Erection

Penis becomes firm and enlarged due to increased blood flow, so that it can penetrate the vagina during copulation

49

Ejaculation

The release of sperm through the urethra of the stiffened penis during an erection