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Flashcards in Human rights Deck (94)
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What is the definition of human rights?

Human rights refer to basic rights and freedoms that are believed to belong to all human beings. They are universal inalienable (cannot be taken away) and inherent in all people. They are also often described as 'indivisible', meaning they are interdependent.

Human rights are a collective of fundamental standards for the treatment of individuals in a fair, just and free society.


What are the three fundamental features of human rights?

1. Inherent- a person possesses them the moment they are born
2. Inalienable- governments may deny people access to their human rights but they cannot be taken away.
3. Universal- they apply to all people regardless of race, age, ethnicity, gender, etc.


What do human rights aim to protect?

Human rights aim to protect individuals from injustice, allow people to achieve their full potential in society and prevent discrimination against groups of people because of their physical characteristics or beliefs


What is the Universal Declaration of human rights? (UDHR)

The universal declaration of human rights (UDHR) is an international declaration of human rights and has formed the basis of laws, constitutions, international treaties and ongoing international debate on human rights. The preamble to the UDHR adopted by the General Assembly of the united nations in 1948, sets out the fundamental purpose for the recognising human rights. It states that recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world'.


What is the concept of human rights central too?

The concept of human rights is central to the operation of law in modern democratic societies and is an integral part of the international legal system.


What can human rights be categorised as?

Human rights can be categorised as 'individual or 'collective'.


What are individual human rights?

Individual human rights are rights possessed by all people in their own right- e.g the right to an education, the right to vote.


What are collective human rights?

Collective human rights are those that belong to a distinct group of people and are exercised on behalf of that community- e.g the right to self determination and the right to peace.


What is slavery?

(Slavery is defined as forced labour) Where a person is considered the legal property of another)


What are some processes that have developed the recognition of humans rights?

Abolition of slavery, The trade union movement, Campaign for universal suffrage, Campaign for universal education, Emerging environmental rights, attempts to establish a right to peace.


What is a trade union?

A trade union is an organised association of workers formed to protect and further their rights and interests.


What does it mean to campaign for universal suffrage?

Campaign for universal suffrage (right for all citizens to vote in political elections)


What does it mean to campaign for universal education?

Campaign for universal education, free and compulsory education for all children


What does the to self-determination mean?

Right of people of a territory or national group to determine their own political status and how they will be governed).


What is a relevant article of the UDHR in regards to slavery and what are some of its points?

UDHR-Article 4- 'no one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all forms'


When did moves to abolish slavery begin?

Moves to abolish slavery and slave trading in Europe began as early as the 12th century.
Abolitionism really began in the 18th century (the 1700s)- rationalist thinkers began to criticise slavery as violating the rights of man and Christians saw slavery as unchristian.


When was slavery ruled illegal in England? With what legislation?

In England, slavery was ruled illegal in the common law of England in R V Knowles (1772) when the judge held that slavery was no longer legal in England, but this did not affect slavery elsewhere in the British empire.


What happened in 1890 Africa in regards to slavery?

The abolitionist movement continued in the rest of the world and by 1890, European countries met in Brussels, Belgium to sign the General act of Brussel's conference relating to the African Slave Trade, abolishing slavery in Africa.


How many slaves are there today?

There are an estimated 27 million people enslaved worldwide.


In what forms does slavery exist today?

Today slavery exists in forms such as, Child slavery, sexual slavery, domestic slavery, bonded slavery and human trafficking is inextricably linked to slavery


What is human trafficking?

Commercial trade in human beings for the purpose of some form of slavery.


When did labour laws begin?

Labour laws began with the industrial revolution ( which occurred during the 1700's and 1800s) and the introduction of mechanised manufacturing


When labour laws first began what was the essence of them?

The essence of such labour laws when they first began was the protection for workers, with demands for better conditions and the right to 'organise'.


What was the first piece of legislation regarding Trade unions in Britain?
What did it secure?

The Trade Union Act 1871
which secured the legal status of trade unions


What was the aim of the International Labour Organisation? (ILO)

The aim of the ILO was to improve conditions for workers around the world and over time has been responsible for many conventions on working conditions and rights.


Where have labour rights been enshrined in the UDHR?

Labour rights were finally enshrined in the UDHR which provides the following labour and trade union rights: Right to work, to free choice of employment, to just/favourable remuneration, right to form and join trade unions, right to rest and leisure including reasonable limitation of working hours and holidays and pay.

Labour rights have also been enshrined in the International Covenant on Economic and social and cultural rights (ICESCR)


What is the definition of democracy?

Democracy is the political system whereby the authority of government is based on the will of the people as expressed through genuine periodic elections.


What is universal suffrage and why is it important?

Universal suffrage is now considered an essential human right and is defined as the right to vote by all citizens, in political elections regardless of status, gender, race or creed'. This is important to a healthy democracy as the will of ALL citizens can be reflected in government decisions increasing the probability that their human rights will be upheld


When were women allowed to vote in Australia?

The Australian Commonwealth allowed women's suffrage in 1902 (Although the state of South Australia allowed this in 1894)


Asses the extent to which the principle of the right to vote has been accepted by nations in the world today.

The right to vote was recognised as a universal human right in article 21 of the UDHR in the late 1940s, By 2015, 89n countries representing 46% of the world population were classified as democratic however 51 countries representing 26% of the world population were still classified as not free. The rest being partially free.