What do oil platforms?
What do dispersants contain?
Oil based compounds
How are hydrocarbons found?
What does oil do?
Direct coating in oil
How is oil formed?
Anaerobic decomposition of these organisms
What does test drilling do?
Establishes where the oil is
Where does oil impact?
Rocky shores, magroves, open ocean, beaches
What do the radars do?
Reflect energy which is recorded
What are the physiological impacts?
What does oil do to marine turtle eggs?
Impacts survival and hatchling development
How does satellite remote sensing of oil spills work?
Radar in space
How is oil cleaned up?
Booms and skimmers at sea
What does oil do to bird feeding?
Causes it to cease as the organs become impacted by toxic effects
Where are hydrocarbons usually formed?
What are the direct effects of oil?
Modifies feeding behaviour, impairs breathing, changes preening, heat regulation fails, fail to react to predators, displacement
What are hydrocarbons?
What happens if the pressure is low?
Requires pumping out to force the liquid out
What are the sub-lethal disruptions of behaviour caused by oil?
Avoid predation, find food
When was deepwater horizon?
What do seismic noise reflections create?
Images of the seabed
What do aerial dispersants reduce?
Oil on beach and contact with wildlife
What are the problems with hydrocarbons?
Exploration and extraction, transportation
When was exxon valdez?`
What does exposure to oil cause in marine turtles?
Causes salt gland to fail, epithelium to breakdown = infections
What is bioremediation?
Natural resources from ecosystems enhanced so oil consuming bacteria helps clean up
When was torrey canyon?
What does oil do to the endocrine system?
Disrupts the hormone systems
What are the downstream effects of oil?
How are oil reserves explores?
Using drilling rig
How does oil impair breathing?
Come to surface, emerging through slick
Which country has lots of oil reserves?
Why do auks suffer more?
Sit on the surface and have short flight ranges
What are 3 oil spills?
Torrey Canyon, Exxon Valdex, Deepwater horizon
How can oil be removed from the coast line?
Scrape off, pressure hose back into the sea
What does oil causes in feathers?
Matting, waterproofing, cannot thermo regulate
What does oil cause birds to increase?
Preening, ingest large quanitites
How are hydrocarbons formed?
Small animals that have died millennia ago and under compression
Why are ranges of devices used?
Produces different frequencies depending on how far they want to penetrate
What does a GNOME do?
Predicts movement of oil spills using open-source software with wind and current data
What does FPSO stand for?
Floating production, storage and offloading vessel
What does physical washing of oil from the surface lead to?
Deeper penetration of oil into the ground = more bioaccumulation
What are the devices for seismic surveys?
Air guns, Sparkers, Boomers, Pingers, Chirp system
Why does oil particularly affect breathing in turtles?
Large tidal volume, short deep respiration
What do aerial dispersants do?
Break down by wave action
What are aerial dispersants?
Fairy liquid on steroids
What is a benefit of satellite remote sensing?
How do seismic surveys work?
Drag buoys with listening station