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Exploitation of the Sea 2 > Hydrocarbons > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hydrocarbons Deck (47):
1

What do oil platforms?

Extracts oil

1

What do dispersants contain?

Oil based compounds

2

How are hydrocarbons found?

Seismic surveys

2

What does oil do?

Direct coating in oil

4

How is oil formed?

Anaerobic decomposition of these organisms

5

What does test drilling do?

Establishes where the oil is

6

Where does oil impact?

Rocky shores, magroves, open ocean, beaches

7

What do the radars do?

Reflect energy which is recorded

8

What are the physiological impacts?

Lethal toxicity

9

What does oil do to marine turtle eggs?

Impacts survival and hatchling development

10

How does satellite remote sensing of oil spills work?

Radar in space

10

How is oil cleaned up?

Booms and skimmers at sea

11

What does oil do to bird feeding?

Causes it to cease as the organs become impacted by toxic effects

12

Where are hydrocarbons usually formed?

Continental shelves

12

What are the direct effects of oil?

Modifies feeding behaviour, impairs breathing, changes preening, heat regulation fails, fail to react to predators, displacement

13

What are hydrocarbons?

Marine deposits

14

What happens if the pressure is low?

Requires pumping out to force the liquid out

14

What are the sub-lethal disruptions of behaviour caused by oil?

Avoid predation, find food

15

When was deepwater horizon?

2010

17

What do seismic noise reflections create?

Images of the seabed

18

What do aerial dispersants reduce?

Oil on beach and contact with wildlife

20

What are the problems with hydrocarbons?

Exploration and extraction, transportation

20

When was exxon valdez?`

1989

21

What does exposure to oil cause in marine turtles?

Causes salt gland to fail, epithelium to breakdown = infections

22

What is bioremediation?

Natural resources from ecosystems enhanced so oil consuming bacteria helps clean up

23

When was torrey canyon?

1967

24

What does oil do to the endocrine system?

Disrupts the hormone systems

24

What are the downstream effects of oil?

Bioaccummulation

26

How are oil reserves explores?

Using drilling rig

27

How does oil impair breathing?

Come to surface, emerging through slick

28

Which country has lots of oil reserves?

Canada

29

Why do auks suffer more?

Sit on the surface and have short flight ranges

30

What are 3 oil spills?

Torrey Canyon, Exxon Valdex, Deepwater horizon

32

How can oil be removed from the coast line?

Scrape off, pressure hose back into the sea

33

What does oil causes in feathers?

Matting, waterproofing, cannot thermo regulate

34

What does oil cause birds to increase?

Preening, ingest large quanitites

36

How are hydrocarbons formed?

Small animals that have died millennia ago and under compression

37

Why are ranges of devices used?

Produces different frequencies depending on how far they want to penetrate

39

What does a GNOME do?

Predicts movement of oil spills using open-source software with wind and current data

40

What does FPSO stand for?

Floating production, storage and offloading vessel

41

What does physical washing of oil from the surface lead to?

Deeper penetration of oil into the ground = more bioaccumulation

42

What are the devices for seismic surveys?

Air guns, Sparkers, Boomers, Pingers, Chirp system

43

Why does oil particularly affect breathing in turtles?

Large tidal volume, short deep respiration

44

What do aerial dispersants do?

Break down by wave action

45

What are aerial dispersants?

Fairy liquid on steroids

46

What is a benefit of satellite remote sensing?

Weather independent

47

How do seismic surveys work?

Drag buoys with listening station