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Exploitation of the Sea 2 > Marine Noise > Flashcards

Flashcards in Marine Noise Deck (68):
1

What are ADCP?

Acoustic dock current profilers

1

What is the distance from pile driving that causes TTS in cetaceans?

10m

1

What has noise in the north sea caused harbour porpoises to do?

Louder voalisations

2

What do naval sonars cause in whales?

Rapid decompression

2

What is the distance from pile driving that causes PTS in cetaceans?

5m

3

What is a decibel?

Logarithmic unit used to express ratio between two values of a physical quantity

4

What is sea state?

How rough the surface of the sea is

5

What does the sea bed do to sound?

Absorb, reflect or refract

6

What is the main sense for marine organisms?

Hearing

6

What are sources of human noise?

Boat traffic, sonar, resource extraction, fisheries

6

What legislation is there against noise?

No specific legislation

7

What type of frequencies travel further?

Low

7

What is the distance from pile driving that causes PTS in pinnipeds?

20m

8

Where abouts in water does sound travel faster?

Near the surface

9

What can cause cause?

Displacement

10

What is the wenz curve?

Determines sea state

11

What is the problem with the frequencies of seismic surveys?

Energy spills out into high frequencies

12

What are sources of natural noise?

Earthquakes, ice, turbulence, waves, rain, bubbles, marine line

13

What can be done whilst we wait for legislation against sound to come in?

Ramp up sound levels, acoustic deterrents

14

What is sound?

Pressure wave

15

What do MMOs do?

Stop activity when animals are seen or heard in the zone of influence

16

What is MSFD?

Marine strategy framework directive

17

What does ADCPs do?

High frequency sounds to measure ocean currents

18

What is the distance from pile driving that causes TTS in pinnipeds?

40m

19

What does sound need to make it noise?

Context

20

What are naval sonars used for?

Find other people under the water

21

What does the airgun in a seismic survey do?

Sends high energy sound into seabed to find oil

21

What are behavioural changes caused by noise?

Vocalisation, surfacing patters

23

What is PTS?

Ear is so damaged so the threshold is pushed

24

What are the 2 types of death caused by noise?

Stranding/bends

25

What is the problem with PTS and TTS?

Not hearing conspecifics to mate, not being able to perceive predators

26

What are the 2 types of injury?

Permanent or Temporary Threshold shfits

26

What is TTS?

Ability to perceive sound changes based on experiences you've just had

27

Why does water propagate sound better?

Properties

27

What does low frequency sound travel through?

Deep sound channel

29

Where is noise from shipping most concentrated?

Around ports and shipping lanes

29

What are some impacts of sound?

Death, Injury, Stress, Changes in behaviour, Masking

31

How do naval sonars work?

Beams out sound at different frequencies and determines where other boats are

31

What does PTS mean?

Permanent threshold shift

32

What do particles in sound do?

Oscillate

33

What can affect the propagation of sound?

Temperature, salinity, pH

34

How has sonar being linked to causing death?

Gas bubbles in the liver - rushing up to the surface because of shock

35

What does construction cause in marine mammals?

Temporary displacement from wind farms

36

What does shipping mostly contribute?

5-500Hz

37

What is descriptor 11?

Thresholds about noise in ports not exceeding a certain number of decibels

39

What are MMOs?

Marine mammal observers

40

What is the range that construction should be built away from animals?

100m

41

Which descriptor in MSFD is in relation to noise?

Descriptor 11

42

How is hormone concentration in whales tested?

From poo

44

How doe seismic surveys work?

Sound bounces off sea bed, heard by receivers and processed on a boat

45

How can climate change alter the propagation of sound?

Warmer water, more carbon

46

Where does most noise from shipping come from?

Propeller rotation, flow noise, engine, dynamic positioning

47

What is noise?

Unwanted sound

49

What does TTS mean?

Temporary threshold shift

51

What does shipping cause in right whales?

Stress

53

How much faster does noise travel in water compared to air?

5 times

55

What is sound comprised of?

Longitudinal waves and oscillating particles

56

What is frequency dependent on?

Body size

57

Why is ramping up sound better?

Scares off animals - not physically injur

59

What is masking?

When noise interferes with organism's ability to hear

60

What is sound refracted or compressed by?

Boundaries of the sea

61

What are ATOC?

Acoustic thermometry of oceans climates

62

What are seismic surveys most used by?

Oil industry

63

How is sound used in scientific research?

Play back experiments - how the brain responds to different sounds

65

What are MMOs on?

Naval and seismic vessels

66

What does the wenz curve predict?

Average number of noise inputs into the sea

67

What kind of frequency does a sound with short wavelength have?

High

68

What does Hz mean?

Signal running at one cycle per second