Hypersensitivities part 2 Flashcards Preview

Immunology > Hypersensitivities part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypersensitivities part 2 Deck (19):
1

Describe a Type 2 hypersensitivity response.

Responses characterized by IgG or IgM antibodies binding to tissues, cells or ECM leading to their damage; Antigen is NOT soluble.

2

What can the Type 2 antibodies bind to?

1. Self antigens on CM or collagen
2. Allergens absorbed onto cells.
3. Donor cells
4. Fetal cells

3

Discuss autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

Erythrocyte membrane proteins are opsonized by antibodies causing hemolysis and anemia

4

Discuss Thrombocytopenic purpura

Antibodies made for platelet membrane proteins; Presents as bleeding

5

Describe Grave's disease

Antibodies made for Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor; Hyperthyroidism

6

Describe Myasthenia gravis

Antibodies made for acetylcholine receptor; Muscle weakness and paralysis.

7

Discuss Rheumatic Fever

Antibody for strep cell wall antigen cross reacts with myocardial antigen; Myocarditis and arthritis

8

Discuss Type 2 diabetes

Antagonistic antibody against insulin receptor; Insulin resistance and obesity.

9

What is the main concern in an ABO incompatibility in pregnancy?

Can affect the first pregnancy

10

Discuss Type 3 hypersensitivity

Formation of soluble immune complexes (IgG or IgM) that get stuck in small vascular spaces and cause tissue damage.

11

What are type 3 hypersensitive antibodies binding to?

1. Soluble self antigens
2. Drugs
3. Bacterial or viral antigens
4. Antibodies for immunotherapy.

12

Discuss Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Antibody against DNA and nucleoproteins. Causes nephritis.

13

Describe strep glomerulonephritis

Antibody to strep cell wall antigen; Nephritis

14

Discuss Serum sickness

Antibodies against foreign antibodies; Systemic vasculitis

15

What are the treatments for antibody mediated hypersensitivities?

1. Anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals
2. Anti-microbial treatments
3. Plasmapheresis to reduce the level of circulating immune complexes (severe cases)

16

Describe Type 4 hypersensitivity

Caused by Th1 or Th17 cells attacking self-antigens. Can be acute or chronic.

17

What are the TCRs binding to in Type 4?

1. Unmodified/Modified self protein
2. Bacterial/viral proteins
3. Donor proteins in transplants

18

Describe a contact hypersensitivity clinically

Blisters present

19

Describe a tuberculin type hypersensitivity clinically.

A hard raised swelling with granuloma formation in the dermis.