Flashcards in Vaccination Deck (16):
Whats the goal of a vaccine?
To create a memory
What is a quarantine?
Separating infected individuals away from the rest of the population.
What is Herd immunity?
Majority of population develops active immunity against a pathogen.
What is the advantage and disadvantage to herd immunity?
Adv: Protects immunodeficient individuals who are not able to develop active immunity.
Disadv: Disappears when large number of individual are no longer immune.
Differentiate Active immunity and artificial immunity
Natural Active: Develops following an active infection by a pathogen
Artificial: Develops following a vaccination
What are the different types of Inactivated bacterial vaccines?
1. Toxoid: inactivated toxin (Stops pathogenicity, not bacteria)
2. Killed: whole bacteria (Stops spread and pathogenicity)
3. Capsule/Subunit: Use immunogenic antigens from the pathogen
What are the different types of inactivated viral vaccines?
1. Inactivated: Whole virus is chemically treated to inactivate
2. Subunit: components of virus that can combine to make virus-like particle
Discuss Live vaccines
Pathogen retains ability to replicate;
1. They are temperature sensitive
2. Unable to replicate in human cells.
3. Unable to migrate to target tissue.
What are the advantages of Live vaccines?
Long term immunity, Activates B and T cells, IgG and IgA; No adjuvant required.
What is a hybrid virus vaccine?
A recombinant virus carrying antigens from multiple pathogens.
What is an anti-idiotype antibody?
It imitats a specific antigen by binding to variable regions of antibody.
What is an adjuvant?
Something that enhances immune response; Aluminum salt
What is a conjugating protein?
A carrier in conjugate proteins; Boosts immune response to polysaccharides.
Discuss the Hapten-carrier effect
If a small, chemical (hapten) is attached to a large protein (carrier), the complex can activate a hapten-specific antibody response and a carrier-specific Th cell response; Produces memory B cells with high affinity IgG,A or E for a NON-PROTEIN antigen.
Why do vaccines need proteins?
To create a T-dependent responses