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Flashcards in Vaccination Deck (16):

Whats the goal of a vaccine?

To create a memory


What is a quarantine?

Separating infected individuals away from the rest of the population.


What is Herd immunity?

Majority of population develops active immunity against a pathogen.


What is the advantage and disadvantage to herd immunity?

Adv: Protects immunodeficient individuals who are not able to develop active immunity.
Disadv: Disappears when large number of individual are no longer immune.


Differentiate Active immunity and artificial immunity

Natural Active: Develops following an active infection by a pathogen
Artificial: Develops following a vaccination


What are the different types of Inactivated bacterial vaccines?

1. Toxoid: inactivated toxin (Stops pathogenicity, not bacteria)
2. Killed: whole bacteria (Stops spread and pathogenicity)
3. Capsule/Subunit: Use immunogenic antigens from the pathogen


What are the different types of inactivated viral vaccines?

1. Inactivated: Whole virus is chemically treated to inactivate
2. Subunit: components of virus that can combine to make virus-like particle


Discuss Live vaccines

Pathogen retains ability to replicate;
1. They are temperature sensitive
2. Unable to replicate in human cells.
3. Unable to migrate to target tissue.


What are the advantages of Live vaccines?

Long term immunity, Activates B and T cells, IgG and IgA; No adjuvant required.


What is a hybrid virus vaccine?

A recombinant virus carrying antigens from multiple pathogens.


What is an anti-idiotype antibody?

It imitats a specific antigen by binding to variable regions of antibody.


What is an adjuvant?

Something that enhances immune response; Aluminum salt


What is a conjugating protein?

A carrier in conjugate proteins; Boosts immune response to polysaccharides.


Discuss the Hapten-carrier effect

If a small, chemical (hapten) is attached to a large protein (carrier), the complex can activate a hapten-specific antibody response and a carrier-specific Th cell response; Produces memory B cells with high affinity IgG,A or E for a NON-PROTEIN antigen.


Why do vaccines need proteins?

To create a T-dependent responses


What is the purpose of T-independent responses?

Its the major defense mechanism against infections by encapsulated bacteria; Pneumoccous, Meningococcous and Haemophilus.