Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (60)
What would a blood pressure greater than be classed as hypertension?
Name two types of hypertensikon that are related to normal variation in individuals?
1. White coat hypertension
2. Stable or labile hypertension
What causes cardiac failure?
Give four conditions hypertension is a risk factor for?
1. Cerebral haemorrhage
3. Renal failure
4. Sudden cardiac death
What populations is hypertension higher in?
According to consequences what are the two classes of hypertension?
What do heart rate, contracility and blood volume control?
What do constrictors such as angiotensin II and catecholamines, and dilators such as NO and prostaglandins control?
What does increase in dietary salt lead to?
Increase in BP
In renal disease, what is two year hypertension usually?
What do renal disease, endocrine disease, aortic disease, renal artery stenosis and drug therapy all have the potential to cause?
What can renal artery stenosis, acute or chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, cystic diseases and interstitial nephritis all cause?
1. Reduced renal blood flow
2. Excess renin release
3. Salt and water overload
Give 4 endocrine causes of secondary hypertension
1. Adrenal gland hyperfunction/tumours
2. Conn's syndrome - excess aldosterone
3. Cushing's syndrome - excess corticosteroid
4. Phaechromocytoma - excess noradrenaline
What can coarctation of the aorta lead to and what is it?
Congenital narrowing of segments of the aorta
What can corticosteroids cause?
What type of hypertension eventually causes, left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive cardiac failure, increased atheroma, increased aneurysm rupture (aortic dissection, Berry aneurysm) and renal disease?
What does hypertension eventually cause in the heart?
Left ventricular hypertrophy
What does increased left ventricular load, poor perfusion, intestitial fibrosis, micro-infarcts and diastolic dysfunction cause?
Left ventricular hypertrophy
What two major things can left ventricular hypertrophy cause?
1. Sudden cardiac death - arrythmia and poor perfusion
2. Cardiac failure
What does hypertension eventually do to tissue?
What can cause a subachnoid haemorrhage?
Rupture of Berry aneurysm
What is the term for plasma proteins being forced into vessel walls (clinical feature of ageing)?
What type of hypertension involves diastolic pressure above 130/140?
What 5 things result from malignant hypertension?
1. Cerebral oedema - seen as papilloedema (swelling of optic disc)
2. Acute renal failure
3. Acute heart failure
4. Headache and cerebral haemorrhage
5. Blood vessels show fibrinoid necrosis and endarteriris proliferans of their walls
What is pre-eclampsia?
Hypertension and proteinuria
What is this a definition of - a disorder in which the level of sustained arterial pressure is higher than expected for the age, sex, and race of the individual?
Before measuring the BP what should you check on the patient?
Pulse - for irregularity
What should you offer if clinic BP is 140/90 or higher?
Abulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to confirm the daignosis of hypertension
If the reading of BP is different between both arms by more than 20 mmHg what do you do?
Repear the measurements