Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (92)
What border of the heart do the phrenic nerves descend across?
The lateral borders
What is the role of the epicardium?
Secretes pericardial fluid lubricant
What happens when the pericardial cavity fills with blood - haemopericardium?
The pressure around the heart increases and can prevent cardiac contraction (a condition known as cardiac tamponade).
What is pericardiocentesis?
Drainage of fluid from the pericardial cavity
What does the pulmonary trunk divide into?
Left and right pulmonary arteries
Where do you palpate for the apex beat?
5th left intercostal space in the midclavicular line (mitral area)
What three structures come from the aortic arch (right to left)?
Brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery
What does the brachiocephalic trunk bifurcate into?
Right subclavian artery and right common carotid artery
The superior vena cava divides into three structures as it moves upwards - what are they from inferior to superior?
Left brachiocephalic vein, right subclavian vein, right internal jugular vein
Which coronary artery descends in the anterior interventricular groove?
The left anterior descending (LAD)
Which coronary artery descends in the coronary groove?
Right coronary artery - the groove indicates the surface marking for the tricuspid valve (boundary between right atrium and right ventricle).
Which branch of the SVC branches out posteriorly?
What is the coronary sinus and what does it do?
It is a short venous conduit (in the atrioventricular groove posteriorly) which receives deoxygenated blood from msot of the cardiac veins and drains into the right atrium.
What artery is a branch of the right coronary artery and travels transversely along the anterior inferior aspect of the heart?
The right marginal artery
Which two arteries does the left main coronary artery branch into?
Circumflex artery and LAD
What is an atrial septal defect?
A hole in the interatrial septum
What is a ventricular septal defect?
A hole in the interventricular septum
What does having mixed arterial and venous blood do? What is this called?
Reduces the oxygen content of systemic arterial blood in the aorta - this is called hypoxaemia
What three openings does the right atrium have?
Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
Where is the tricuspid valve?
Between the right atrium and right ventricle
Where is the pulmonary valve?
Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
Where is the mitral valve?
Between the left atrium and the left ventricle
Where is the aortic valve?
Between the left ventricle and the aorta
What does the moderator band in the heart do?
Carries fibres of right bundle branch to the papillary muscle of the anterior cusp
Where would you listen for the aortic valve?
2nd right intercostal space, sternal edge
Where would you listen for the pulmonary valve?
2nd left intercostal space, sternal edge
Where would you listen for the tricuspid valve?
5th/6th left ICS, lower left sternal edge
Where would you listen for the mitral valve?
5th left ICS, midclavicular line
What is the first heart sound caused by?
Closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves