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JL Cardiovascular > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (92)
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What border of the heart do the phrenic nerves descend across?

The lateral borders

1

What is the role of the epicardium?

Secretes pericardial fluid lubricant

2

What happens when the pericardial cavity fills with blood - haemopericardium?

The pressure around the heart increases and can prevent cardiac contraction (a condition known as cardiac tamponade).

3

What is pericardiocentesis?

Drainage of fluid from the pericardial cavity

4

What does the pulmonary trunk divide into?

Left and right pulmonary arteries

5

Where do you palpate for the apex beat?

5th left intercostal space in the midclavicular line (mitral area)

6

What three structures come from the aortic arch (right to left)?

Brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery

7

What does the brachiocephalic trunk bifurcate into?

Right subclavian artery and right common carotid artery

8

The superior vena cava divides into three structures as it moves upwards - what are they from inferior to superior?

Left brachiocephalic vein, right subclavian vein, right internal jugular vein

9

Which coronary artery descends in the anterior interventricular groove?

The left anterior descending (LAD)

10

Which coronary artery descends in the coronary groove?

Right coronary artery - the groove indicates the surface marking for the tricuspid valve (boundary between right atrium and right ventricle).

11

Which branch of the SVC branches out posteriorly?

Azygous vein

12

What is the coronary sinus and what does it do?

It is a short venous conduit (in the atrioventricular groove posteriorly) which receives deoxygenated blood from msot of the cardiac veins and drains into the right atrium.

13

What artery is a branch of the right coronary artery and travels transversely along the anterior inferior aspect of the heart?

The right marginal artery

14

Which two arteries does the left main coronary artery branch into?

Circumflex artery and LAD

15

What is an atrial septal defect?

A hole in the interatrial septum

16

What is a ventricular septal defect?

A hole in the interventricular septum

17

What does having mixed arterial and venous blood do? What is this called?

Reduces the oxygen content of systemic arterial blood in the aorta - this is called hypoxaemia

18

What three openings does the right atrium have?

Superior vena cava
Coronary sinus
Inferior vena cava

19

Where is the tricuspid valve?

Between the right atrium and right ventricle

20

Where is the pulmonary valve?

Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk

21

Where is the mitral valve?

Between the left atrium and the left ventricle

22

Where is the aortic valve?

Between the left ventricle and the aorta

23

What does the moderator band in the heart do?

Carries fibres of right bundle branch to the papillary muscle of the anterior cusp

24

Where would you listen for the aortic valve?

2nd right intercostal space, sternal edge

25

Where would you listen for the pulmonary valve?

2nd left intercostal space, sternal edge

26

Where would you listen for the tricuspid valve?

5th/6th left ICS, lower left sternal edge

27

Where would you listen for the mitral valve?

5th left ICS, midclavicular line

28

What is the first heart sound caused by?

Closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves

29

What is the second heart sound caused by?

Closure of pulmonary and aortic valves