Hypoglycemia Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Endocrine > Hypoglycemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypoglycemia Deck (18):
1

which hormones increase serum glucose?

glucagon
cortisol
growth hormone
adrenaline
NE

2

how do you differentiate hypoglycemia due to overproduction or getting too much exogenous insulin?

C peptide

3

what is the normal response of the alpha cells of the pancreas to decreasing glucose levels?

increase in glucagon

4

what does glucagon do to the liver and adipose tissue in response to low glucose levels?

liver - stimulation of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

adipose tissue - stimulates fat breakdown

5

how does hypoglycemia relate to the adrenergic system?

activates adrenergic response

6

what are the autonomic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia?

sweating
anxiety
tachycardia

7

what are the neuroglycopenia signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia?

mental status changes
confusion
lack of concentration
abnormal behavior
blurry vision
coma

8

what are the etiologies of post prandial hypoglycemia?

- post gastric resection
- islet cell tumor
- glycogen storage disease
- hereditary fructose intolerance
- galactosemia

9

how does alcohol affect gluconeogenesis? how does it affect glycogenolysis? what is the overall effect?

inhibitor

promote

alcoholics can flood their serum with glucose, but cannot replenish it

10

what is the whipple triad?

- symptomatic
- hypoglycemic
- relief of symptoms after restoration of normoglycemia

11

patients who are found to have hypoglycemia at time of diagnosis should have what blood tests done?

- glucose
- insulin
- C peptide
- beta hydroxybutyrate
- proinsulin
- sulfonylurea

12

what is the rationale for a 72 fast?

- a normal person should be able to regulate their blood glucose over this time period

- someone with an insulinoma will have an overproduction of insulin and become symptomatic

13

what are the provocative tests for diagnosing hypoglycemia?

tolbutamide
glucagon

14

what imaging is done for hypoglycemia?

- abdominal CT or MRI
- ultrasound, transabdominal or endoscopic
- arterial calcium stimulation: to distinguish focal abnormality vs diffuse process

15

what test is used to distinguish focal abnormality vs diffuse process?

arterial calcium stimulation

16

what is the acute management for hypoglycemia?

- oral glucose IF patient is conscious
- IV glucose 50% followed by IV drip dextrose
- glucagon IV or SQ

17

what is the treatment for an islet cell tumor?

surgical resection

18

what is the treatment for post gastric surgery hypoglycemia?

increase frequency of meals