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Flashcards in I/O Deck (92):
1

Job analysis vs job eVALUation

Analysis --> describes job REQUIREMENTS
* job-oriented methods = info re: tasks
*worker-oriented methods = info re: worker ("KSAOs")
Evaluation --> establishes COMPARABLE WORTH thru compensable factors (skills, education, degree of responsibility, consequences of errors)

2

KSAOs

Knowledge
Skills
Abilities
Other characteristics

3

Types of criterion mesures

Objective: quantitative; often inadequate, may be biased due to situational factors; often unavailable to managerial/admin/prof jobs

Subjective: most frequently used; reflect judge of rater

4

Subjective raters

self: most lenient, less halo effect
supervisor: most reliable
peer: predicts training success and promotions
subordinate, peer and supervisor: agree more with each other than with self

5

characteristics of criterion measures

ultimate - vs- actual criterion
relevance --> construct validity
deficiency --> degree actual criterion DOES NOT measure all aspects
contamination

6

subjective criterion measures can be ____ or ___

relative or absolute

7

relative vs absolute criterion measures

relative--> compares 2 or more employees
helps reduce rater biases
forces rater to rate high or low
prohibited for most federal jobs **
raters/ratees dislike them
low employee feedback on performance

absolute--> only rates one employee's performance

8

Types of relative subjective criterion measures

Paired comparison
forced distribution ("grading on the curve")

9

Types of absolute subjective criterion measures

critical incident technique
forced choice
graphic rating scale
BARS

10

predictor vs criterion

predictor = selection
criterion = ON the job

11

reliability vs validity

reliability = unaffected by measurement error
validity = measures what its designed to assess

12

what type of validity is most important in IO?

criterion-related validity

13

steps of criterion-related validity

1) job analysis
2) select/develop predictor
3) administer predictor (to applicants) and criterion (to current employees)
4) correlate predictor and criterion scores (criterion-related validity coefficient)
5) check for adverse impact ***
6) evaluate incremental validity
7) cross-validate (redo steps 3-6 w/new sample)

14

80% Rule

majority group hire rate X .80 = minimum hire rate of minority

15

what is shrinkage?

when cross-validation coefficient is smaller because chance factors from 1st sample are not present

16

Causes of adverse impact

differential validity (valid for one group, not other)
unfairness (diff groups get diff scores on predictor, but similar scores on criterion)

17

selection ratio

job openings: applicants
LOW ratio preferred (one job, many applicants)

Can RAISE predictor cutoff to reduce hiring a false +
(raise predictor, lower criterion)

18

Base rate

% of employees performing satisfactory without using proposed predictor (from 0 - 1.0)

19

best base rate for incremental validity?

Moderate: (close to .5)

20

Taylor-Russell tables

Best:
--low validity coefficient (.30)
--low selection ration (1:100)
--Moderate base rate (.45)

21

multiple predictors (3)

Multiple regression-->"compensatory" - exceptional performance in one area can compensate for poor areas
multiple cutoff--> need minimum score on each predictor
multiple hurdles-->need min score in order to advance to next predictor (saves time and $)

22

Common predictors of job performance (8)

1) general ability (cognitive) tests
2) job knowledge tests
3) personality tests
4) interest tests
5) biota
6) interviews
7) work (job) samples
8) assessment centers

23

"big 5" personality

Conscientiousness ** (best predictor)
neuroticism
extraversion
openness
agreeableness

24

common predictors with highest validity coefficients are ____ and ____.

general ability tests (highest)
job knowledge tests (job-specific)

25

predictor that is susceptible to faking and more predictive of job choice, not job success is ______.

interest tests

26

bio data lacks _____ validity

face (don't want to answer - perceived as private info)

27

_____ are low in reliability but very common

interviews

28

______ interviews are more valid than _____ interviews

behavior description (past experience) more valid than
situational (hypothetical)

29

Realistic Job Preview (RJP)

description of job, video, discussion, etc.

30

trainability tests are used when _____

no prior experience, provides period of learning and evaluation

31

assessment centers are used for ____ or ____

determining promotion from lower to higher positions
identifying manager's needs for training

32

parts of a needs assessment (4)

1) organization analysis
2) task (job) analysis
3) person analysis
4) demographic analysis

33

elements of effective training (6)

1) provides feedback
2) over learning
3) frequent opportunities for ACTIVE practice
4) frequent opportunities for DISTRIBUTIVE practice
5) choose appropriate learning focus (whole or part learning)
6) promotes transfer of training

34

whole learning vs part learning

whole --> low complexity; high organization
part --> high complexity; low organization

35

transfer of training (4)

"identical elements"
general rules AND specific skills
variety of examples
skills are reinforced on the job

36

on-the-job vs off-the-job training

ON:
--job rotation - perform several jobs over time (train managers)
--cross training - teaching tasks performed in similar jobs (train workers)

OFF:
--vestibule training - replication or simulation of work environment
--behavior modeling - based on Bandura social learning
*modeling by trainer
*guided skill mastery (role-play)
*slef-directed application of new skill on job

37

4 levels of evaluation criteria for training programs

reaction criteria
learning criteria
behavioral criteria
results criteria

38

utility analysis

U=T x N x d x SD - N x C
T=# years
N = # people
d = effect size
C= per person cost of training

39

formative vs summative evaluation

formative--> performed WHILE being developed
results used to modify training BEFORE implemented
summative-->AFTER program is implemented
assesses outcomes
how much trainees learned; cost effectiveness

40

theories of career development and choice (7)

Super life space/life span theory
Holland RIASEC
Roe (basic needs and personality)
Tiedeman & O'Hara career decision-making model
Krumboltz social learning theory
Brousseau & Driver decision dynamics career model
Davis & Lofquist theory of work adjustment (TWA)

41

Super's life space/lifespan theory

*self-concept--> changes, more stable as older
*life span-->5 stages
*career maturity--> ability to cope with developmental tasks of life stage (Career Developmental Inventory)
*life space-->social roles at different points in life (Life Career Rainbow)

42

Super's life span stages

Growth (0 - 14 yo)
Exploration (14-25 yo)
Establishment (25-45)
Maintenance (45-65)
Disengagement (65+)

43

Holland RIASEC

matches personality to characteristics of job environment
Realistic
Investigative
Artistic
Social
Enterprising
Conventional

44

Roe's theory of career development/choice

choice linked to basic needs + personality (genetic factors + early childhood experiences)

45

3 types of parent-child relationships impacting career choice (Roe)

emotional concentration-->overprotective/overdemanding
avoidance--> neglect/rejection
acceptance--> loving, casual
(type determines orientation toward people or not toward people)

46

Roe's 8 Fields of work

service
business contract
organization
technology
outdoor
science
general cultural
arts/entertainment

47

Tiedman & O'Hara career decision making model

ongoing; tied to ego identity development (Erickson); differentiation and integration

48

2 phases of Tiedman & O'Hara's model

1) Anticipation
--exploration
--crystalization
--choice
--specification
2) Implementation & Adjustment
--induction
--reformation
--integration

49

Krumboltz Social Learning Theory

(based on reinforcement theory by Bandura)
--genetic endowment/special abilities
--environment conditions/events
--learning experiences (instrumental and associative learning)
--task approach skills
***Focus on continual learning and self development

50

Career Belief Inventory

identifies irrational, illogical beliefs that affect career decisions

51

Brousseau & Driver decision dynamics career model

"career concept"
*linear
*expert
*spiral
*transitory

52

Davis & Lofquist Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)

satisfaction --> characteristics of job = needs and values
satisfactoriness --> skills = skill demands of job
Work Values Assessment

53

Work Values Assessment

identifies jobs that fit needs and values (6 values):
--achievement
--independence
--recognition
--relationships
--support
--working conditions

54

2 coping strategies of unemployment

problem-focused strategies--> job search, additional training, moving
symptom-focused strategies--> regulating emotional response

55

Scientific management

$$$ is motivator
Theory X managers: employees dislike work, must be redirected and controlled
Theory Y managers: work is "as natural as play"; capable of self-control and self-direction
**Workers' motivation directly related to manager's beliefs

56

performance is a function of: ____ + ____ + ______

ability, motivation, environment

57

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

self-actualization
esteem
social (belonging/love)
safety
physiiological

58

ERG theory (alternative to Maslow)

Existence
Relatedness
Growth

59

Need Theory of motivation in organizations

based on TAT
*need for achievement (nAch)
---high nAch = choose moderately difficult/risky tasks
assume personal responsibility (NOT good managers)
high entrepreneurial success
*need for power (nPOW)
--personal power benefits self
--socialized power benefits others (effective leaders are high in socialized power)
*need for affiliation (nAff)
--work best in teams

60

Two-Factor Theory

lower level needs (hygiene)
--job contEXT factors
--eg: pay, benefits, supervision, job security, work conditions

higher level needs (motivator)
--job conTENT factors
e.g.: opps for responsibility, advancement, recognition, achievement

61

job enrichment -vs- job enlargement

job enrichment
--"vertical" load
--grater responsibility, freedom, control
job enlargement
--"horizontal" load
--greater # of tasks
--reduces boredom
--does NOT impact satisfaction/motivation

62

Goal-Setting theory

more apt to achieve goals that are consciously accepted/committed to
--participation in goal setting not necessary UNLESS not likely to accept assigned goals

63

specific and moderately difficult goals

50% chance = higher productivity than easy, general or ambiguous goals
feedback is critical

64

independent vs group work

independent = indep goals better
group = group goals better
group + ind = no more effective

65

Equity Theory

social comparison
own input/output ratio to others' ratios

66

Expectancy Theory (VIE)

Valence---> rewards are desirable
Instrumentality---> successful performance = rewards
Expectancy---> high effort = successful task performance

E---->I---->V
expect effort leads to task performance -->rewards---> rewards are desirable

67

Social-Cognitive Theory (Bandura)

goal-setting
self-observation
self-evaluation
self-reaction

68

job satisfaction depends on ____ and _____

worker characteristics
job factors

69

job factors

job security
opportunities to sue skills/abilities
organization's financial stability
relationship with immediate supervisor
compensation/salary (equitable pay)

70

worker characteristics

disposition: enduring trait
age: U-shaped relationship
race/ethnicity: lower satisfaction compared to Whites
gender: women less satisfaction (exploited, lower level jobs, paid less than men)
occupation level
life satisfaction

71

effects of job satisfaction

performance -- .30 correlation
turnover, absenteeism, tardiness -- turnover .40
physical/mental health

72

organizational commitment

affective -- correlated to turnover, absenteeism, org. behavior, job performance, personal stress
continuance -- social and $$ costs of leaving
normative -- sense of obligation

73

leadership characteristics

behavior
--high in consideration = person-oriented
--high initiating structure = task-oriented
gender
--females more likely to be democratic/participative decision-making style
personality traits
--drive, honesty/integrity, leadership motivation, self-confidence, high cog ability, knowledge of business, flexibility, creativity
--EXTRAVERSION: strongest of Big 5 for effective leadership
intelligence
--.27 correlation
--only somewhat more intelligent than subordinates
--too large of discrepancy creates problems in commitment and trust

74

Fiedler's contingency model of leadership

HIGH LPC
--relationship-oriented
--concerned with maintaining relationships
**Best perform very unfavorable and very favorable situations
LOW LPC
--task-oriented
--goal achievement
**Best in moderately favorable situations

75

situational favorableness depends on:

--relationships with subordinates
--nature of task
--leader's position power

76

Cognitive Resource Theory

(extension of Fiedler)
high stress = experience more predictive of performance
low stress = IQ more predictive

77

Path-Goal Theory

a) clarify goals and paths leading to achievement
b) provide rewards to subordinate: support/attend to their needs

78

leadership styles according to Path-Goal theory

directive
supportive
participative
achievement-oriented

79

Situational Leadership styles

TELLING--> high task, low relationship
--employee: low ability, low willingness
SELLING--> high task, high relationship
--employee: low ability, high willingness
PARTICIPATING--> low task, high relationship
--employee: high ability, low willingness
DELEGATING--> low task, low relationship
--employee: high ability, high willingness

80

Normative Decision-Making Model

degree of employee participation in decision-making
* AI (autocratic): no participation; leader decides alone
*AII (autocratic): leader seeks input, but makes final decision alone
*CI (consultative): explains problem 1:1, then decides
*CII (consultative): explains problem as a group, then decides
*G (group): explains to group, then group decides

81

optimal grow size for cohesiveness

5-10 members
also homogeneity, group goals

82

types of group tasks

additive--> individual contributions added up
compensatory-->contributions are averaged together
disjunctive-->select solution of one member
conjunctive--> limited by worst-performing member
discretionary--> group decides

83

group performance
homogeneous vs heterogenous

homogeneous: more cohesive, higher performance on simple tasks, cooperation tasks, quick action
heterogenous: complex tasks, creativity, complimentary skills

84

stages of group development

forming--> get acquainted, "ground rules"
storming--> conflict, resist group leader
norming--> accept group, develop close relationships, begin work to achieve group goals
performing--> focus on "getting job done"
adjourning--> disbands

85

centralized vs decentralized communication networks

centralized
--efficient for simple tasks
decentralized
--better for complex tasks

86

individual decision making

rational-economic --> consider all possible alternatives
bounded rationality (admin)--> restraints force "less than rational" decisions (aka "satisficing")

87

Lewin's Force Field Analysis

driving forces --> promote change
restraining forces--> resist change

88

Nadler's systems model

informal organization elements
formal organization elements
characteristics of tasks
***changes in one will cause changes in the others

89

Orgnaization Development Interventions

1) QWL - quality of work life
2) QCs - quality circles (makes suggestions)
3) SMWTs - self-managed work teams (actually make hiring, budget decisions usually made by managers)
4) process consultation (focus on behaviors, not attitudes)
5) survey feedback (data collection, data feedback, action planning)
6) TQM - total quality management (focus on customer satisfaction)

90

resistance to change strategies

rational-empirical
normative-reeducative
power-coercive

91

demand-control (job strain) model

demand = job demands/requirements
control=job control, autonomy, discretionary skill use, "decision latitude"
**HIGH job demand + LOW job control = highest stress

92

early sign of job burnout

sudden increase in work effort without increase in productivity