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Flashcards in Exam Errors Deck (125):
1

Incremental validity

HIGH criterion-related validity coefficient

LOW selection ratio (lots of applicants for few positions)

MOD base rate (selection technique = moderately accurate)

2

Delirium vs psychosis

Delirium=Sx random, haphazard, rapid onset

Psychosis=Sx systematized

3

Ohio State U Behavior of leaders

Imitating structure (task-orientation)

Consideration (person-orientation)

4

MMPI scales

K - Korrection (defensiveness)

L - lie

F - inFrequency

5

Adult Attachment Interview

  • Autonomous = describes parent + or - and gives examples (Child --> secure)
  • Dismissing = describes parent + but no examples (Child --> avoidant)
  • Preoccupied = - or confused description, no examples (Child --> resistant
  • Unresolved/disorganized (Child -->disorganized/disoriented)

6

Cross' Black Racial ID Model

  1. Pre-encounter
  2. Encounter
  3. Immersion-Emersion
  4. Internalization

7

Fiedler's Contingency model

Characteristics of work situation (affect ability to lead)

Leader-member relations ***most important

Task structure Leaders position power

8

Transtheoretical model

  • Pre-contemplation: cons outweigh pros
  • Contemplation: " " "
  • Preparation: pros=cons
  • Action: pros outweigh cons
  • Maintenance: pros outweigh cons

9

Predictors of moving to next stage (Transtheoretical model)

Perception of self efficacy

Decisional balance (pros/cons)

10

BP vs ADHD

  • BP only:
    • Elation
    • Grandiosity
    • Flight of ideas
    • Reduced sleep
    • Hypersexuality
  • BOTH:
    • hyperactivity,
    • irritability,
    • distractibility,
    • accelerated speech

11

Conventional vs Realistic

Conventional: keeping records, org data, attention to detail, others' instructions

Realistic: technical, physical, mechanical, outdoor activities

12

Schizophrenia vs schizophreniform vs brief psychotic disorder

Time

13

Paired comparison technique

Measure of job performance All employees compared to each other in PAIRS

14

"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" learning=perception of relationships among elements of a problem

Gestalt (Kohler)

15

Caplan mental health consultation

Case consultation (focus on consultee)

* client-centered = particular client

* consultee-centered=group or population Admin consultation (focus on administrators)

* program-centered=particular program

* consultee-centered=focus on admins

16

4 dopamine pathways

  • Mesolimbic -> motivation/emotion (high dopamine here=+Sx)
  • Mesocortical --> emotion/cognition (low dopamine here= -Sx)
  • Nigrostriatal --> motor Sx (Parkinson's)
  • Tuberoinfundibular -->hypothalamus/pituitary (prolactin & hormones)

17

Ridley model of paranoia

  • Nonparanoiacs - low culture, low functional
  • Functional paranoiacs--> psychopathology
  • Healthy cultural paranoiacs , low functiional, high cultural
  • Confluent paranoiacs ???

18

Super lifespan model of career development

  • Growth (4-13)
  • Exploration (14-24)
  • Establishment (25-44)
  • Maintenance (45-65)
  • Disengagement (65+)

19

Overregularization vs overextension

Over reg = grammar rules

tooths instead of teeth, goed instead of went

Over ext = uses word too broadly

20

Telegraphic vs holophrastic speech

Telegraphic = 2 words

Holophrastic = one word (means 'whole')

21

Option receptor antagonist Reduces alcohol cravings

Naltrexone

22

Efficacy vs effectiveness

Efficacy: clinical trials

Effectiveness: "real world" effects (correlational, quasi-experimental studies)

23

Papez' circuit

limbic system

24

IQ correlations among family

  • .18 -- adopted child with parent
  • .25 -- bio sibs reared apart
  • .40 -- parent and child
  • .68 -- identical twins reared apart
  • .80 -- identical twins reared together

25

Stress inoculation training

conceptualization: skills acquisition: application:

26

Q-sort technique

rank ordering descriptive statements about self

27

James-Lange theory

emotions are perceptions of bodily reactions body first, then emotions ("JAMES' great body made Jessica LANGE emotional")

28

Cannon-Bard theory

emphasis on brain emotions first, then body reacts

29

"gender schema theory"

Bem

30

OCD across cultures

same stats different content of obsessions and compulsions

31

TQM (Total Quality Management)

based on employee involvement fails when employees not fully participating

32

best Rx for chronic pain

mixed SSRIs/SNRIs (better than SSRIs alone)

33

best Rx for Alcohol Dependence

SSRIs best for low alcohol consumption with LATE onset Alcohol Dependence (Type A)

34

Types of Alcohol Dependence

Type A: Late onset = lower consumption; fewer Sx; less severe Sx

Type B: Early onset = more Sx; more severe Sx; more severe psychopathology

35

procedural memory is mediated by _____

the striatum (caudate nucleus + putamen)

36

brain structure that mediates emotion

hypothalamus

37

Piaget moral development

HETEROnomous (subject to laws outside individual)

--rule violations are punished

--rules changed only by authorities

AUTOnomous (self-governing)

--rules can be changed by consensus

38

expressed emotion is predictive of relapse for ____

MORE predictive for mood and eating disorders than schizophrenia

39

contingency management

punish undesirable + reward/reinforce desirable

40

false memory induction

Creates false memories by repeated asking about events never experienced

41

imagination inflation

asking to imagine event before asking if it ever happened to the individual

42

Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM)

erroneously recalling a word from a list of semantically related words

43

Loftus misinformation effect

original memory of events altered by exposure to misleading information

44

best Tx for stuttering

Habit Reversal: regulated breathing + awareness training + social support

45

Centralized vs decentralized communication

centralized: better for simple tasks

decentralized: better for complex tasks

46

when is brain lateralization first evident?

1st year of life

47

stages of Freudian psychoanalysis

confrontation: goal to help client see behavior in new way

clarification: clarifies client's statements

interpretation:

working through:

48

script vs heuristic

script = "event schema": series of events/actions in particular situation

heuristic = "mental shortcut" (rule of thumb)

49

According to REBT, what is the basis of irrational thoughts?

biological basis

50

what is the effect of brain trauma on memory?

most recent memories: most vulnerable to amnesia

remote memories: first to be recovered

51

fading vs thinning

fading: reducing prompts

thinning: reduction in + reinforcement

52

Chin & Benne

3 strategies to overcome resistance to change in an organization

Rational-Empirical: providing info when resistance is due to lack of knowledge

Normative-Reeducative: peer pressure and social norms used to promote change

Power-Coercive: relying on a strong leader

53

4 dopamine pathways

mesolimbic = emotion and motivation

mesocortical = cognition

nigrostriatal = motor (Parkinson's)

tuberoinfundibular = hypothalamus to pituitary (prolactin secretion)

54

Type I error vs Type II error

Type I error == (alpha) incorrect rejection of a true null

Type II error == (beta) incorrectly retaining a false null

55

OARS (Motivational Interviewing)

O - open-ended questions A - affirmations R - reflective listening S - summary statements

56

____% of new mothers have postpartum major depression ____% have "baby blues"

10-15% up to 80%

57

CBT-E (CBT-Enhanced) for Bulimia

targets perfectionism, low self-esteem, interpersonal factors and emotional factors

58

Social Anxiety vs Panic Disorder

social anxiety--> MAY include panic attacks, but they are related to the known feared situation

Panic Disorder --> attacks are unexpected

59

physical issues that cause impotence

  • diabetes
  • antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs
  • liver and kidney disease

60

sexual arousal hormone in men and women

androgen (adrenal cortex)

61

maternal employment has most detrimental effect on academic achievement of ______

middle and upper-SES boys (especially when mother works FT thru child's life)

62

fact vs expert witness

fact -- only offers facts

expert -- can offer opinion

63

When would a structural family therapist use a family map?

to make a structural diagnosis by clarifying boundaries, coalitions, etc.

64

circular questions

used in Milan systematic family therapy

helps family members recognize differences in perceptions

65

Gain-loss theory

prefer people who initially have negative feelings about us but change to positive (more than those consistently positive) AND we dislike those with initially positive feelings about us then change to negative

66

social exchange theory

more likely to remain in a relationship when rewards are greater than cost

67

balance theory

relationship between: person, another person, and third person or idea, event, object

68

self-verification theory

people prefer others who provide them with accurate info about themselves (consistent with self-evaluations)

69

children show an AWARENESS of racial difference by age _____, but understand race as a physical, social, and biological category at age ____

awareness by age 3-4 deeper understanding at age 10

70

benefits of HRT

alleviate mood swings decrease likelihood of osteoporosis reduce/eliminate hot flashes ***does not have effect on libido***

71

neo-Piagetians

use information processing to explain shortcomings of Piaget's theory

72

Holland's Self-Directed Search (SDS) scores

commonness -- of score with standardization

sample consistency --distance between first two RIASEC code letters (closer together = higher consistency)

coherence -- degree to which interests are in same category

congruence -- between expressed and measured interest

73

APA can take disciplinary action against a psychologist after conviction of _______

a felony (does not apply to misdemeanors)

74

TAT scoring

needs (internal determinants of behavior)

press (environmental determinants of behavior)

thema (interactions between needs and press)

75

types of cost analysis

cost-benefit -- relative costs and benefits of an intervention

cost-utility -- costs and patient outcomes (includes quality duration and of life)

cost-feasibility -- determines feasibility of an intervention based on resources it requires

cost-minimization -- identifies the least costly alternative

76

approach-avoidance conflict

BOTH increase as event gets closer but negative increases MORE

77

Depression vs Anxiety -- how to tell difference

negative affect --> similar in both

Positive affect -- higher in anxiety

Autonomic Arousal -- higher in anxiety

78

situational leadership

high ability, high willingness --> delegating (can be trusted to do assigned tasks independently)

high ability, low willingness --> participating (have ability, but need their participation)

low ability, high willingness --> selling (novices need to be sold on the task)

low ability, low willingness --> telling (can't trust to do it themselves)

79

neurotransmitters linked to Social Phobia

serotonin and dopamine

80

holophrastic speech begins at age ____ telegraphic speech begins at age ____

holophrastic = 12-18 mos (one word) telegraphic = 18-24 mos (two words)

81

ADHD -- low metabolic activity in ____ and ____.

prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia

82

Lever #1 = VI-30 Lever#2 = VI-60 What is the ratio of Lever #1 taps by pigeon?

Lever #1 tapped twice as often as Lever #2 (2 times out of 3 = 2/3)

83

Structural Family Therapy (techniques)

--marking boundaries

--escalating stress

--utilizing symptoms

--manipulating mood (criticized for no empathy)

84

Motivational Interviewing (OARS) goal:

help client resolve ambivalence toward change

85

Motivational Interviewing (techniques)

--simple reflection --double-sided reflection --amplified reflection --summary statements (Communicates empathy)

86

Left-Right confusion due to:

lesion in left parietal lobe Gerstmann Syndrome (also dysgraphia, dyscalculia, finger agnosia)

87

MDD requires ____ duration of Sx

2 weeks

88

Satir's family therapy emphasizes:

styles of communication (5) --placater --blamer --super-reasonable --irrelevant --incongruent

89

PTSD Sx clusters

intrusion avoidance cognition/mood arousal/reactivity

90

Delusional Disorder requires ____ delusions for at least ____.

one or more delusions for at least one month

91

Substance Use Disorder domains

impaired control social impairment risky use pharmacological criteria

92

Tourette's syndrome due to excessive activity of dopamine receptors in ____

caudate nucleus

93

94

Schein organizational culture

Organizational culture: observable artifacts, espoused values & beliefs, and underlying assumptions.

95

MMPI

Alcohol abuse & depression

High on 2, 4, & 7

96

mmpi 

somatoform profile

conversion V

high 1 & 3, low 2

97

Most dreams occur in _____ sleep and the dreams are ____

REM

NREM Dreams are Fleeting images, less vivid and more relaistic

98

Satir - communication styles

  1. placater
  2. blamer
  3. super-reasonable
  4. irrelevant
  5. congruent

99

3 types of standard errors

  1. Standard error of the mean
  2. Standard error of measurement
  3. Standard error of measurement

100

  1. Standard error of the mean
  2. Standard error of measurement
  3. Standard error of estimate

  1. Standard error of mean = standard deviation of sampling distrution  of the mean (pop std dev/square root n
  2. Std err of measurement = construct confidence interval around obtained test score
  3. Std err of estimate = construct confidence interval around predicted criterion score

101

purpose of factor loading

to obtain a pattern easier to interpret

102

103

Mimesis

joining technique that involves adopting family's affective and communication style

104

SCID

Structured Clinical Interview for DSM5

105

Spearman r measures

2 rank correlates

106

Pearson r measures

2 continuous variables correlations

107

Phi coefficient measures

2 dichotomous variables

108

point biserial measures

correlation 1 variable is continous, the other true dichotomous

109

Seattle longitudinal study used what design to study age & intelligence

cross-sequential

110

Howard phase model of client's progres in therapy

  1. remoralization
  2. remediation
  3. rehabilitation

111

age infants exhibit recognition memory for up to 24 hours following presenation  of a stimulus

3 months

112

Sources of self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura)

  1. prior accomplishments
  2. observations of others
  3. verbal persuasion
  4. emotional and physiological states

113

What is the Papez circuit

emotional brain of the limbic system

Also plays role in acquistion of new memories

114

papez circuit includes

  1. hippocampus
  2. mammillary bodies
  3. cingulate gyrus
  4. anterior nuclei of thalamus

115

base rate fallacy

the tendency to ignore relevant statistical data when making a probablity judgment and to rely instead on irrelevant info

116

Von Restorff Effect

Tendency to remember very unusual or unique objects

Stick out like a sore thumb

117

Forer Effect AKA

Barnum effect

118

Barnun effect refers to 

tendency to accept a vague or very general description of oneself (horoscope)

119

Visual feature representation is necessary for

mirror self-recognition

120

3 steps of strucural family therapy

  1. joining 
  2. evaluating/dxing
  3. restructuring

121

2 types of joining in Structural Family Therapy

  1. Tracking - identifying & using family's values, life themes
  2. mimesis - adopting family's affective & behavioral style

122

When is family map used in structural family therapy

to facilitate structrual diagnosis

123

Enactment is a technique

used to facilitate diagnosis and structuring of the family (structural family therapy)

124

Substance Use Disorder Sx Categorized into

  1. Impaired control
  2. social impairment
  3. risky use
  4. pharmacological criteria

125