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1

Epidemiology

the branch of medicine which deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health

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Infectious(communicable) diseases

are illnesses caused by pathogens that can spread from organism to organism

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Virulence

the ability of an agent of infection to produce disease

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Contagious

means easily transmitted from one host to another

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To spread an infectious disease required:

1)an infectious agent (pathogen)
2)a host
3) a mode of transmission

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Zoonoses

describe the example of the spread of a disease from animals to humans

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pathogen

is defined as anything able to cause a disease within a host
bacteria, viruses (fungi, protozoa)

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A host

is an organism which a pathogen infects

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Direct contact

touching the affected area of the infected person -passing pathogen on to non infected person
includes: touching skin, handshake, kissing, sexual contact

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Direct contact diseases example

HIV, chickenpox, herpes simplex infection

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Indirect contact

Airborne diseases-inhalation of bacterial spores/ droplets
Food and water-eating/drinking contaminated food
Vector -transmission through other organisms that carry the disease
Contaminated articles- articles that become contaminated (food utensils)
Non sterile procedures- all surgeries or caring for wounds require germ free proceedures

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Pattern of Infection-

1) Pathogen enters the body
2) Incubation period when the pathogen reproduces, increasing in numbers -host doesn't show symptoms
3) Host shows symptoms of infectious disease
4) Crisis- the effect on the host is at its most severe stage from which host will either die or recover
5) Convalescence when the host recovers from the infection and the symptoms disappear

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An infection

is the detrimental colonisation of a host organism by a foreign species

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Fomite

inanimate object that has (the potential to have) an infectious disease

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A host cell

a living cell in which a virus reproduces

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A primary host

host in which parasite reaches maturity and reproduces sexually

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A reservoir host

can hold a pathogen with no ill effects

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A secondary (intermediate) host

host that holds the parasite for short time during which some development stage is completed

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Endemic Disease

a disease condition that is normally found in a certain percentage of a population

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Epidemic Disease

a disease condition that is found in a greater than usual percentage of a population

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Pandemic Disease

An epidemic affecting a large geographical area, often on a global scale

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Direct zoonosis

the disease is directly transmitted from animals to humans through air, bites.

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Reverse zoonosis

when humans infect animals