Flashcards in IDFX/IDPX 2 - Human Behavior and the Designed Environment Deck (49):
A designer's unique approach to a creative problem solving process based on historic precedent, human behavior and perception, a particular process, environmental design research & EBD, a designer's personal world view, and functional needs
What are the ELEMENTS of design?
What are the PRINCIPLES of design?
- Harmony & unity
- Contrast and variety
Describes how people use a space based on circumstances and cultural aspects. What are the four different distances identified in the theory
Focuses on the size, proportion, and range of motions of the human body. Findings are statistically grouped by sex, age, and percentile ratios.
What are the 7 principles of Universal Design?
1. Equitable use
2. Flexibility in use
3. Simple and intuitive use
4. Perceptible information
5. Tolerance for error
6. Low physical effort
7. Appropriate size and space
What are the 3 goals of life safety?
1. Protection of life
2. Protection of property
3. Restoration and use of the building after a fire (or other emergencies/disasters)
Key concept within life safety that aims to contain a fire, limit its spread with dual objective to allow occupants to escape the building and protect the unaffected parts of the building. It is achieved structurally through:
1. Door ratings
2. Floor-ceiling assemblies
3. Fire-rated walls
4. Fire separations
Exit signs, emergency lighting, audible/visible fire alarms, fire extinguishers, smoke detectors, and sprinklers are all examples of what?
Life safety equipment
What is the fire-resistance rating of a fire partition and where are they used?
1-hour fire rating
Corridor walls, elevator lobbies (high-rise buildings and I-2, I-3 occupancies), walls separating dwelling units (apartments/dorms), walls separating guest rooms in residential (R-1, R-2) and I-1 occupancies, and walls separating tenants in covered shopping malls.
Vertical or horizontal structure that is fire-resistance rated and specifically designed to confine fire and allow for safe passage.
How are fire barriers different from fire partitions and how are they used?
Fire barriers offer higher levels of protection because they it is continuous from the floor slab to the underside of the floor or roof above.
Used to enclose stairways and other means of egress, separate different occupancies, and separate single occupancies into different fire areas
What are the three parts of egress?
1. Exit access (aisles, corridors, hallways, intermediate rooms)
3 Exit discharge (balconies, exterior stairways, some lobbies)
Part of the exit access that is taken before two separate paths to two different exits become available. Distance is based on occupancy type.
Common path of egress
What is the maximum common path of egress travel distance for most occupancies?
How are minimum exit width dimensions calculated?
By multiplying the occupant load by 0.3 per occupant in stairways OR 0.2 per occupant in other egress components (corridors)
Occupant load X 0.3 or 0.2
How does the IBC define "means of egress"?
As a continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way
What are the three parts of means of egress?
1. Exit access
2. Exit discharge
3. Public way
A geographical area that uses the same codes, standards, and regulations and is determined by the location of the building.
A model building code that attempts to unify code requirements across geographic barriers
ICC International Performance Code for Buildings and Facilities (IPC)
What does a standard consist of?
A definition, recommended practice, test method, classification, or required specification
Performance codes VS prescriptive codes
Performance codes state the objective that must be met, and may offer options for compliance, whereas prescriptive codes mandate that something be done in a certain way (most codes in the US)
The study of moist air. Moisture, heat, and air interact to affect building performance.
Why is the mean radiant temperature an important factor in cold rooms or in the winter?
Because as the air temperature decreases, the body loses more heat through radiation than by evaporation
The MRT is an important comfort factor in cold rooms or in the winter because as the air temperature decreases, the body loses more heat through radiation than by evaporation. Even a room with an adequate temperature will feel cool if the surfaces are cold. Warming the surfaces by covering them with wall hangings or draperies or providing radiant heating panels are ways to counteract this effect.
What is the minimum length a handrail must extend at the top of a stair run?
A handrail must extend a minimum of 12” at the top of the run.
ADA.gov 505.3 Continuity. Handrails shall be continuous within the full length of each stair flight or ramp run. Inside handrails on switchback or dogleg stairs and ramps shall be continuous between flights or runs.
EXCEPTION: In assembly areas, handrails on ramps shall not be required to be continuous in aisles serving seating.
What is the minimum hight that an object more than 4"D must be mounted at to comply with ADA codes?
Objects that are more than 4” (100 mm) deep may not be mounted between 27" (685 mm) and 80" (2115 mm) AFF. If an object is more than 4" (100 mm) deep then the bottom must be mounted at 80" (2115 mm) or higher AFF or the top must not extend more than 27" (685 mm) AFF
What would be the most important consideration in the design of ergonomically correct chairs for operators in a 24-hour emergency call/dispatch center?
Because different people would be using the same chair for long periods of time, the chairs would have to be adjustable to accommodate variations in body size.
What is NOT a requirement of an accessible tub?
￼Enclosures for bathtubs shall not obstruct controls, faucets, shower and spray units or obstruct transfer from wheelchairs onto bathtub seats or into bathtubs. Enclosures on bathtubs shall not have tracks installed on the rim of the open face of the bathtub.
A client has asked a designer to create an intimate seating area for a hospital waiting room. Which of the following is likely to have the greatest impact on achieving a client’s goal?
Manipulating scale through the physical placement of walls, ceilings, and other architectural elements would be most likely to create the feeling of intimacy.
The use of pattern, texture, and color, while important elements in setting a mood, can be neutralized if the physical size of the space is too great.
How many exits are required for an assembly space with an occupancy of 551?
IBC 1021.2.4 Three or more exits.
Three exits, or exit access stairways or ramps providing access to exits at other stories, shall be provided from any story or occupied roof with an occupant load from 501 to and including 1,000. Four exits, or exit access stairways or ramps providing access to exits at other stories, shall be provided from any story or occupied roof with an occupant load greater than 1,000.
What concept would be most critical during a fire in a high rise building?
Compartmentation is a critical concept in fire and life safety. The basic idea is to contain a fire and limit its spread, to allow building occupants to escape and to protect other parts of the build that are not initially subject to the fire. In a high-rise building, where it may not be practical to evacuate the building immediately, compartmentation can provide places of refuge where occupants can wait until the fire is extinguished or until they can exit safely. Compartmentation provides time for fire suppression by automatic sprinklers or by fire fighting personnel.
Which of the following is true about accessible plumbing:
1. to avoid the possibity of leg burns, drains must be placed in the floor and not in the wall
2. all exposed hot water pipes and drains MUST be insulated or otherwise protect wheelchair users from burns on legs
3. all of these
4. exposed pipes should not protrude more than 8" (200 mm) from the wall
All exposed hot water pipes and drains must be insulated or otherwise protect wheelchair users from burns on legs
NCIDQ 5.4 ALL exposed hot water pipes and drains MUST be insulated or otherwise protect wheelchair users from burns on the legs.
ADA.gov 606.5 Exposed Pipes and Surfaces. Water supply and drain pipes under lavatories and sinks shall be insulated or otherwise configured to protect against contact. There shall be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under lavatories and sinks.
The building commissioning of an interior design project seeking LEED credit is the responsibility of the
1. project's interior designer
3. independent commissioning team
4. project's mechanical engineer
Independent commissioning team
Source: Interior Construction and Detailing, Sustainable Design
To get LEED credit, an independent commissioning team must be used. Even without seeking LEED credit, commissioning requires a joint effort of the engineer, the contractor, the electrical engineer, the building owner, and others.
Determine the gross area of an office space with a net area of 6,000SF and an efficiency factor of .75:
6,000 / .75 = 8,000
Requirements that dictate how many accessible elements must be ￼provided
For example, scoping provisions tell the designer how many seats in a restaurant must allow for wheelchair access or how many housing units in a complex must be accessible.
Which test gives the most accurate evaluation of the safety of a partition system?
ASTM E119 tests the entire assembly, not just the finish materials like ASTM E84 (also ￼known as the Steiner tunnel test). The ASTM E119 test is best at evaluating any barrier, like a partition, that is intended to prevent the spread of fire.
According to the IBC a dead-end corridor may not exceed how many feet in an unsprinklered building?
The IBC limits the length of dead-end corridors based on occupancy and sprinklering.
1018.4 Dead ends.
Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length.
A ￼dead end is when the occupant of a building has only one choice of direction leading to an exit access doorway or an exit. The code limits the length of a dead-end corridor to 20 ft (6096 mm).
Accessible (barrier free) urinals must have an elongated rim and sit a maximum of how many inches/mm to the top of the rim?
Following BOMA standards, what is the correct method to measure the occupant area for an office tenant space that shares a common wall with adjacent tenant suites on either side and a wall with a public corridor?
From the inside face of the glass, to the centerline of adjacent demising partitions, to the inside tenant face of the partition bordering public corridor
Partitions between suites (demising partitions) are considered “shared” between suites, therefore occupant area is measured to the centerline of these walls. If glass is more than 50% of the exterior wall area, occupied area is measured to the inside face of the glass. Finally, for walls bordering public or common areas (such as a corridor), occupant area is measured to the inside face of the tenant side of the wall.
Where is it most important to use safety glass?
1. swinging doors, storm doors, or when the bottom edge of the pane is less than 18" above the door
2. window pane greater than 9 sf
3. shower doors and bathtub or shower enclosures or when the pane is greater than 9 sf
4. sidelites 24 from a door frame
Swinging doors, storm doors, or when the bottom edge of the pane is less than 18" above the door
Building codes require safety glass to prevent injury in hazardous locations subject to ￼human impact, such as glass in doors, bath and shower enclosures and specific wall locations. Because the bottom edge of the window pane is lower than 18" AFF, safety glass is required.
When selecting the upholstery and window treatment fabrics for a hotel lobby design, which of the following standards would NOT be a consideration for the fabric?
1. Cal TB 116
2. Vertical Ignition Test
3. NFPA 257
4. Cigarette Ignition Resistance Test of Furniture components
All of these tests relate to the flammability of fabrics with the exception of NFPA 257, the Standard for Fire test for window and glass block assemblies.
This fire and hose stream test establishes fire protection, in units of time, for window openings in fire-resistive walls. It determines the degree of protection from the spread of fire, including flame, heat and hot gases.
What is the minimum clear floor space required for side transfer for an accessible (barrier free) shower?
30" x 48"
5.8.9 A clear floor space of 30" (760 mm) x 48" (1200 mm) MUST be provided in front of accessible lavatories, urinals, showers, and bathtubs.
A building can receive LEED credit if the carpet used meets the requirements of what program?
A building can receive a LEED credit for using a carpet system that meets or exceeds the requirements of the Carpet and Rug Institute's IAQ Carpet Testing Program.
The carpet may be on the Greenguard Registry or have a Green Seal label, but neither is sufficient for LEED credit. The SCAQMD sets standards for VOCs, but meeting their requirements is not sufficient for receiving LEED credit.
All accessible (barrier free) lower cabinets must have a toe kick that measures:
6"D x 9"H
NCIDQ 5.6 ALL accessible (barrier-free) lower cabinets MUST have a 6" D maximum x 9" H minimum (150 mm x 230 mm) toe-kick.
Accessible (barrier free) mirrors must be mounted with the edge of the reflective surface no higher than how many inches/millimeters AFF:
NCIDQ 5.8.10 Accessible mirrors MUST be mounted with the edge of the reflective surface no higher than 40" (1000 mm) AFF.
Which is the study of how human beings relate to a space based on their cultural background?
The term proxemics was created by anthropologist Edward T. Hall to describe the
￼interrelated observations and theories about how people use space as a specialized elaboration of culture.
Proxemics deals with the issues of spacing between people, territoriality, organization of space and positioning of people in space, all relative to their culture.
A vertical change in floor finish height cannot exceed ____ without a sloped transition piece.
Dion was promoted and now has his own office. He has been busy adding his own personal touches to the space to include his diploma, and framed award certificates, photos of his wife and kids, and photos of his fraternity brothers. What type of human behavior is this and example of?