II. Identify and/or Explain Flashcards Preview

Rhetoric Final > II. Identify and/or Explain > Flashcards

Flashcards in II. Identify and/or Explain Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...

Is public speaking an essential ingredient of democracy or a source of its decline?

Matter of personal opinion.


Why the philosopher cannot be a politician according to Socrates?

That [the philosopher's] dialectical mode of speaking with one person at a time cannot work with the many.


Identify the four virtues of the prose style according to Aristotle.

Grammatical correctness
Clarity: “the virtue of style be defined as “to be clear (speech is a kind of sign, so if it does not make clear it will not perform its function)”
Propriety: “neither flat nor above the dignity of the
subject, but appropriate. The poetic style is hardly flat, but it is not appropriate for speech.”


Explain the technical conception and the prudential conception of rhetoric during the Renaissance.

1) A technical conception: rhetoric in this period was conceived of as an ethically and ideologically neutral technique of argument gave rise to considerable anxiety concerning the immoral ends to which rhetoric might be put practical politics
2) A prudential conception: rhetoric was seen as the embodiment of a faculty of practical reasoning or prudential deliberation that is tied to ethical norms the good orator is of necessity a good man ethical politics


Explain shortly Machiavelli’s opinion about politics and rhetoric.

Machiavelli does not supplant rhetoric with a more realistic view of politics but rather makes politics more deeply rhetorical than it had been in the earlier humanist tradition


Explain the goal of Adlai Stevenson's speech to the United Nations.

The GOAL of the speech:
“My government is most anxious to effect a peaceful resolution of this affair.
We continue to hope that the Soviet Union will work with us to diminish the -- not only the new danger which has suddenly shadowed the peace,
but all of the conflicts that divide the world.”


Was Winston Churchill’s speech at Westminster College in Fulton kairotic? Explain.

Yes. "Sinews of peace" speech fell after George Kennan's "Long Telegram" and directly after Stalin's election speech in 1946 with the purpose of galvanizing the Western world against the Soviet threat.


Define the rhetorical situation according to Lloyd Bitzer, them name and define its three components.

A complex of persons, events, objects and relations inviting discussion which, if it is fitting to the situation, changes the situation

1) Exigency – “an imperfection marked by urgency” -- the reason why we perceive a need to speak out on an issue or situation (topic)
2) Audience - those with an interest and ability to react to exigency, those who can be persuaded to act or change
3) Constraints - limitations and opportunities for what can be said; those factors that shape the nature and content of persuasive messages and purposes (that is, make the messages reasonable and sensible)


What is the difference between the flat and the ornamented style according to Aristotle?

FLAT: “The use of nouns and verbs in their prevailing meaning makes for clarity”
ORNAMENTED: “other kinds of words, as discussed in the Poetics, make the style ornamented rather than flat”


Characterize the American golden age of oratory, and name three important political orators of that time.

Oratory = a medium of achieving artistic excellence
The age of ceremonial oratory
1) Abraham Lincoln
2) Charles Sumner
3) Stephen Douglas


Explain how Barack Obama identified himself rhetorically with Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr.

Springfield, Illinois, where Obama launched his campaign in 2007:
What the life of “a tall, gangly, self-made Springfield lawyer tells us”
Invoking Lincoln as a rhetorician: “He tells us that there is power in words. He tells us that there is power in conviction … He tells us that there is power in hope”
How Lincoln achieved change through “his will and his words”

Springfield speech: “We heard a King’s call to let justice roll down like water, and righteousness like a mighty stream.”


In which American presidential campaign it was used for the first time advertising clip? Explain the rhetorical strategy of that clip.

"I Like Ike"

- Argumentum ad populum


Give three examples of American presidents’ political slogans.

“The new world order” (Bush)

"The new covenant” (Clinton)

“A new American revolution” (Reagan)


What is the most important figure of speech according to Aristotle?



Name two figures of sound, and give one examples for each of them.

Alliteration - “Keep Cool with Coolidge”
Assonance - “I like Ike."


Define the dialectical and the ethical arguments against propaganda.

Dialectical: Illogical, emotional, crowd-pleasing
Ethical: Intentional deception, manipulation, biased argument


Explain the positive use of propaganda in the American history.

Organizations like the CPI, IPA, and OWI have been used to produce national unity and resolve during times of war or crisis.


Explain the differences between deliberative democracy and rhetorical democracy.

Rhetorical democracy = a democracy depending on the function of rhetoric in helping to situate citizens in relation to the issues that concern them.

Deliberative democracy - understands the democratic space as a neutral space of transparent, rational communication


Explain the differences mass communication and public communication.

Public Communication
Givers of opinion nearly as numerous as receivers
Ability to answer and respond within the communication

Mass Communication
Few have access to give opinion; many receive
Communication is one way. Notice that platform speaking often becomes mass in this sense.


Explain the connection between rhetoric and literature that was emphasized by the “new rhetoricians”?

R. Weaver: “language is sermonic” = every utterance is rhetorical (offers our worldview to others)

Kenneth Burke:
Literature = Rhetoric (both aimed to affect the reader/listener by means of language)

Wayne C. Booth: all discourse is addressed to a reader/listener


What are the differences between the Sophistic and the Aristotelian conception of Style?

Sophistic: The purpose of style is to convey and argument clearly, and nothing more.

Aristotelian: Style is important in and off itself for the purpose of persuasion.


What are the benefits of speech apprehension according to Quentin Schultze?

Adrenaline for energetic delivery.
Motivation to prepare well.
Trust in God


What is a “writer with an ear for language” according to William Zinsser?

A writer who understands how his voice sounds, and how best to write in his voice.


What are the secrets of eloquence according to William Zinsser?

It moves us with what it leaves unsaid our readings, religion, cultural heritage
Invites us to bring some part of ourselves into understanding the meaning of the speech


Give three examples of stylistic features that are recommended in writing a speech “for the ear”.

1. Avoid using too many adjectives and adverbs
2. Eliminate slang, jargon, and technical language
3. Use vivid nouns and verbs


Comment Cicero’s oratorical strategy of “arguing both sides of any issue”.

An orator who could argue both sides of any issue “would be the one and only true and perfect orator”
Making the orator a better debater
It promotes the probable truth


What are the three “necessities” of political action, and their ranking according to Cicero in De inventione.

“doing what is honorable”
“the necessity of security”
“the necessity of convenience”


How does Cicero understand the relationship between politics and moral standards?

Cicero believes that in political discourse that victory is superior to truth, and that the good of the republic is the greatest good - immoral actions are acceptable if they contribute to the good of the republic.


Describe the difference between Ethos and Persona.

Persona = “character of a theatrical performance, mask”
As servant speakers: Our authentic Ethos, not our Persona enables us o be virtuous and act virtuously


Explain the difference between Augustine and Cicero’s speech ethics.

Augustine’s moral absolutism (individualistic, solitary the City of God)

Cicero’s moral relativism (language as social and political instrument the City of the World)