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Flashcards in Imaging Deck (17)
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What is a KUB? Used for? Pros?

- kidney, ureter and bladder: plain frontal supine radiograph of the abdomen
- used to help ID stones (can see stones that are 4 mm and larger)
- helps to assess constipation in ped pts
- Also can look at platelet of stents
- inexpensive


What is an IVP? Used for?

- xray done with IV contrast to look at kidneys, ureters and bladder
- used for:
abdominal injury
bladder and kidney infections
flank pain


Risk of IVP?

- allergic rxn
- pt will have to void b/f and after study
- a series of images will be taken at various times to look at filtration
- CT IVP has replaced traditional IVP


Diff US used in urology?

- renal
- prostate
- scrotal


Use of renal US?

- size of kidneys
- signs of injury to kidneys
- abnormalities present at birth
- presence of blockage or kidney stones
- complications of UTI
- cysts or tumors


Use of scrotal US?

- look at size of testicles
- to eval mass or lump (cystic vs solid) (see hydrocele, vericocele - use doppler)
- find reason for pain if PE was normal
- look at blood flow to testicles
- look for location of undescended testis


Use of prostate US?

- called trans-rectal US (TRUS)
- detect disorders w/in prostate
- measure the prostate
- help distinguish cause of man's infertility (ejac duct problem?)
- eval prostate nodules: needle bx
- placement of needles for radiation


What is a VCUG?

- an xray study of bladder using fluoroscopy and contrast material
- used to check for vesicoureteral reflux after a UTI
also used for:
- bladder obstruction
- abnormal urinatrion w/ very high pressure w/in bladder
- incomplete bladder emptying
- done mainly in kids who have recurrent bladder infections or pyelonephritis, feverish UTI


What is a RUG? Used for what?

- retrograde urethrogram
- more commonly used in male pts
- helps dx urethral pathology from trauma or urethral strictures
- done for pre and post-op reconstruction of the urethra
- can help ID urethral diverticulum and fistulas


If pt presents to ER from trauma and see blood at meatus what should you think? How would you dx?

- urethral tear
- use RUG


Use of CT for dx renal stones?

- no contrast dye is used
- Gold std to detect stones
- detects all types of stones: even uric acid stones - (if you did KUB first saw nothing - know it's uric acid)
- gives the exacty shape, size, and location of stone (only painful when in ureter)


Drawbacks to using CT scan for dx renal stones?

- radiation exposure
- cost


Use of IVP CT scan?

- use IV contrast dy
- eval collecting system, ureters, and bladder
- used for causes of hematuria
- ID renal tumors better than CT w/o contrast


Drawbacks to IVP CT?

- radiation exposure
- cost
- allergy to contrast dyes
- renal disease


Use of radionuclide imaging?

- renal scan: use 2 diff radiopharm: DTPA, MAG3
- looks at blood supply, fxn, and excretion of urine from kidney
- used mainly by urologist to eval hydronephrosis - UPJ obstruction? Is kidney repairable?


benefits and risks of radionuclide imaging?

- benefits:
provides info unattainable by other imaging, helps with dx and management
- risks:
low radiation exposure
allergic rxns


Use of MRI for eval of prostate?

- used mainly for prostate cancer
- helps determine extent of spread of cancer - has it spread outside of the capsule?
- helps in planning radiotherapy for prostate cancer