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Flashcards in Prostate Disorders Deck (29)
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Incidence of BPH increases w/ what? RFs?

- MC benign tumor
- incidence increases with age:
8% at 31-40
50% 51-60
90% over 80
- RFs:
poorly understood
maybe some genetic predisposition
maybe some racial factor{s


PP of BPH?

- growth begins in periurethral glandular tissue
- over time, a surgical capsule forms around adenomatous hyperplasia
- as gland enlarges there is increased resistance to urine flow w/ subsequent bladder muscle hypertrophy
- eventually emptying won't complete and w/ each voiding there will be residual urine which predisposes to infection and decreases time until next micturation reflex
- hyperplastic prostate is highly vascular and predisposed to bleeding which can result in painless hematuria


Clinical presentation of BPH?

obstructive sxs:
- hesitancy
- weak stream
- decrease caliber of stream
- incomplete emptying of bladder
- straining
- postvoid dribble

irritative sxs:
- frequency
- nocturia
- urgency

- sometimes UTIs or acute urinary retention may be presenting scenario
- sxs can wax and wane over short period of time but will gradually progress over many yrs


Hx ?s to ask pt about suspected BPH? What can you use?

- critical to ask how much a pt is bothered by sxs
- Objectively document severity - give pt AUA sx scale to score sxs
- scores range from 0-35
0-7: mild
8-19: moderate
20-35: severe
*dx is based almost entirely on hx


PE and labs for BPH?

- PE:
DRE: size and consistency of prostate (size of gland doesn't necessarily correlate w/ degree of mechanical obstruction
- consistency should be smooth, firm, elastic enlargement of prostate
- induration if detected - must alert possibilty of cancer and then further investigation is needed (PSA, US, bx)
- neuro exam: sphincter tone, reflexes
- labs: UA - infection, blood?
PSA (+/-)


Imaging for suspected BPH? When is imaging indicated?

- renal US (bilateral hydronephrosis- if from BPH)
- imaging not std procedure, is recommended only in presence of concomitant urinary tract diseaes, or complications from benign BPH:
renal insufficiency
hx of stones


Goals of BPH therapy?

relieve sxs of:
- incomplete bladder emptying
- feelings of urgency to urinate
- weak urinary stream
- having to push or strain urinating
- having to get up mult. times in night to urinate

- delay further prostate enlargement


Meds for BPH?

- Alpha-blockers: cardura, flomax: quick acting, for sx relief
- 5-ARIs: takes 3-4 months to see effect, reduces prostate size (only effective in larger prostates)
- anticholinergic agents: reduces irritative voiding sxs (can cuase retention of urine)
- PDE-5 inhibitors - sx relief and ED
- herbal - Saw Palmetto


Guidelines for tx of BPH?

1st line:
- if sxs mild (AUA score of less than 7): no medical tx is recommended, Watchful waiting!
- limit fluid b/f bedtime
- avoid decongestants
- double void
- void frequently

2nd line (first line medical):
- pharm therapy if AUA greater than 7
- use alpha blocker in pt who is also HTN, 5-ARI if prostate is enlarged to 40 g or more

3rd line: combo - Jalyn (avodart+flomax)


Surgical options for BPH? Indications for postatectomy?

indications for prostatectomy:
- refractory acute retention
- hydronephrosis
- repeated UTIs due to obstruction
- recurrent or refractory gross hematuria
- elevated Cr level that responds to period of bladder decompression w/ catheter drainage

- TURP: MC surgical procedure for BPH
complication: retrograde ejac (infertility), classically said to be assoc with incontinence and ED but not confirmed
- TUIP: better choice for younger guys with smaller prostates, reduces risk for retrograde ejac
- PVP: transurethral laser surgery - less bleeding
- simple prostatectomy:
for large prostates too big for TURP, for pts with BPH and bladder stones, longer stay in hospital and higher chance for blood loss


Urinary retention - as complication of BPH - dx and tx?

- can progress over time w/o sxs
- can be acute and painful
- dx:
renal US
Cr level
- tx:
med: alpha blocker/5-ARI
foley cath
self cath
SP tube


What is acute bacterial prostatitis? Causes?

- swelling and irriation (inflammation or infection) of prostate gland that develops rapidly
- MC etiologies:
E. coli**
protus mirabilis
- some STIs can cause this, typically in men younger than 35:
ureaplasma urealyticum
- prostatitis from STI usually comes soon after sexual contact w/ infected partner


MC cause of acute bacterial prostatitis in men older than 35? What may this occur after? Other causes of acute bacterial prostatitis?

- E. coli and other bacteria
- may ocur spontaneously or after:
- may also develop from problems involving the urethra or prostate:
bladder outlet obstruction
cath or cystoscopy
prostate bx
anal intercourse
transurethral surgeries


Who is at increased risk for acute bacterial prostatitis?

- rare in young boys
- men 20-35 who have multiple sexual partners are at increased risk, also at high risk are those who engage in anal intercourse, especially w/ using condoms
- men 50 and older who have enlarged prostate are at increased risk for prostatitis due to their risk of UTI


Sxs of acute bacterial prostatitis?

- more likely to start quickly and cause greater discomfort
- abdominal pain (right above pubic bone)
- pain and burning with urination
- fever, chills, flush
- inability to completely empty bladder (urinary retention)
- low back pain
- pain w/ BM
- painful ejac
- pain in area b/t genitals and anus (perineal pain)


Dx acute bacterial prostatitis?

- good PE: don't do prostate massage or DRE (could cause sepsis)
- UA and culture
- No PSA - will be high from infection


Tx of acute bacterial prostatitis?

- abx: bactrim or septra, floxin or cipro, doxycycline - for at least 4 wks
- shot of ceftriaxone followed by 7 day course of doxy (for men w/ prostatitis caused by STD)
- hospital stay and IV abx (for severe cases)
- stool softeners may reduce discomfort that occurs w/ BM


What is chronic bacterial prostatitis? Causes?

- may evolve from acute bacterial prostatitis but many men have no hx of acute infection
- gram - rods are MC cause
- 1 gram + rod (enterococcus) is assoc. w/ chronic infection


How does chronic prostatitis present?

- can present much diff than acute prostatitis
- frequency, dribbling, loss of stream volume and force, double voiding, hesitancy, and urgency
- may or may not have pelvic or perineal pain
- may have intermittent discomfrot in low back and/or testicles
- may have hematuria, hematospermia, or painful ejaculations


PE findings of chronic prostatitis?

- exam reveals enlarged prostate w/ variable amt of asymmetry, bogginess, and tenderness (not typically exquisitely tender like acute prostatitis)
- pt won't have fever and chills, doesn't look ill like in acute prostatitis


W/U for chronic prostatitis?

- UA usually normal unless secondary cystitis present
- analysis of EPS
- if no secretions can be obtained: pre and post prostate massage urines
- lab analysis will include gram stain, leuk count, culture and sensitivity


Management of chronic prostatitis?

- bacterial:
bactrim for 2-3 months
cipro for 4 wks
can use doxy (esp if chlamydia a concern)
- EPS should be eval at end of tx period to demonstrate cure
- nonbacterial:
doxy (or other abx active against atypicals such as azithro)
- for both situations - a-blockers (flomax) can help w/ sxs, also NSAIDs, sitz baths
- TURP is an option when repeated courses of abx and other measures fail


How common is nonbacterial prosatitis? Cause?

- MC form of prostatitis
- cause unknown, speculation about chlamydiae, mycoplasma, ureaplasma and viruses
- inflammatory or autoimmune
- presenation is identical to that of chronic w/o any UTI present
- recureent sx exacerbations termed male chronic pelvic pain syndrome


Presenation, labs and tx of nonbacterial prostatitis?

- same presentation as chronic bacterial prostatitis, but no hx of previous infection
- labs:
UA is normal, EPS: increased leukocytes
- tx:
uncertain of cause tx against mycoplasm, chlamydia, ureaplasma - erythromycin - 4-6 wks
- sx relief: flomax


What is prostatodynia? Presentation?

- noninflammatory disorder of the prostate
- includes voiding dysfxn and pelvic floor dysfxn
- presentation:
sxs similar to chronic prostatitis, no hx of UTI, hesistancy and stop/start of urinary flow
- PE:
unremarkable, increased sphincter tone and periprostatic tenderness may be observed
- this is a dx of exclusion


Labs and tx of prostatodynia?

- labs:
UA normal
EPS: normal amt of leukocytes
urodynamic studies: normal
- tx:
diazepam for pelvic muscle dysfxn


What BPH meds decrease serum PSA concentrations? Similarities b/t cancer and BPH?

- 5-ARIs (Proscar)
- impt b/c PSA levels overlap considerably in men with BPH and prostate cancer
- enlarged in both BPH and cancer


Common complication of TURP therapy?

- retrograde ejac - leading to infertility (don't recommend to pts that want kids)


Hallmark signs of acute prostatitis?

- perineal pain and exquisite tenderness of prostate