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Flashcards in Imaging of Circulatory Disturbances Deck (20)
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1

What are the modes of anatomical vascular imaging?

Plain films
Ultrasound
CT
MRI
Contrast angiography

2

What are the modes of functional vascular imaging?

Radionuclide imaging
MRI functional imaging
Ultrasound

3

What are the problems associated with vascular imaging?

Soft tissue contrast
Functional significance of lesion
Determining if treatment is effective
Blood vessels and lumen of hollow viscera not seen very well

4

What are the ideal properties of a man-made contrast agent in radiology?

Attenuation the same as the surrounding tissues
Not expensive
Inert
Equal distribution in and out of selected body compartments
Painless
Easy to use

5

What are the properties of iodinated contrast?

Differential x-ray attenuation
Inert
Stable in selected body compartments
Painless
Easy to use
Cheap

6

What are the potential problems with iodinated contrast?

Major reactions
Renal dysfunction
Disturbance of thyroid metabolism
Disturbance of clotting
Seizures
Pulmonary oedema

7

What are the potential properties of parenteral iodinated contrast?

Metallic taste
Feeling of warmth when injected
Arterial injections may cause micturition or discomfort
Can rarely cause nausea

8

What needs to be discussed prior to parenteral iodinated contrast use?

Previous contrast allergy
Asthma or atopy
Poor renal function
Metformin use - will need to be stopped before contrast injection

9

How is catheter angiography carried out?

Vessel punctured and catheterised
Sterile procedure
Contrast injected using pump injector
Rapid series of images acquired

10

What are the uses of interventional radiology?

Angiography/angioplasty
Embolisation
Catheter thrombolysis
Drainage of abscess
Nephrostomy
Vertebroplasty

11

When should angioplasty be used?

In stenosis or occlusions
Sessile/concentric plaques

12

What are the advantages and disadvantages of angioplasty?

Not as long lasting as surgery but not as dangerous

13

How can carbon dioxide be used in radiology?

Negative contrast agents
Useful in patients with poor renal function or sensitivity to iodinated contrast agents

14

What are the potential problems with angioplasty?

Occlusion
Dissection
Embolisation
Rupture
Infection

15

What are the properties of ultrasound scanning?

No radiation dose
Quick
Non-invasive
Resolution vs penetration
May be more physiological
Operator dependent

16

When can radionuclide imaging be used for vascular disturbances?

Perfusion and blood loss
Sequential imaging
Lung scintigraphy
V/Q scan
Perfusion of transplant kidneys
Blood loss into GI tract

17

What are the properties of nuclear medicine?

IV injection only
Good patient compliance
Easy to arrange
Radiation dose
Very insensitive
Very non-specific

18

What are the properties of CT angiogram?

Gives information about other structures
Sensitive
IV injection only
Radiation dose
High contrast dose
Expensive

19

What are the properties of MRI angiography?

Sensitive
Specific
No radiation dose
No nephrotoxic contrast
Very expensive
Needs state of the art machinery
High contrast dose

20

What is involved in consenting a patient in radiology?

Patient learns key facts about an investigation/treatment, including potential risks and benefits, before deciding whether or not to proceed
Consent should be sought by the person doing the procedure in complex interventional radiology