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Flashcards in IMMS Deck (29):
1

Mitochondria structure

double envelope membrane, folded into cristae (increase SA)

2

Which processes take place in mitochondria (and specifically where)

-matrix, TCA cycle, link reaction and beta oxidation
-outer mem, lipid synthesis and FA metabolism
-inner mem, resp chain and ATP production
-inner mem space, ADP->ATP phosphorylation

3

Types of endoplasmic reticulum and their function

-rough ER, packages proteins
-smooth ER, detox of hydrophobic molecules and mem lipid synthesis
-sarcoplasmic R, stores and releases Ca2+

4

Golgi apparatus function

modification and packaging of proteins

5

Vesicle function

transport of proteins and enzymes

6

Peroxisomes function

-consumes molecular oxygen
-removes hydrogen from lipids, alcohol and toxic substances
-produces H202 (can also destroy)
-FA breakdown

7

Components of cytoskeleton

1) actin filaments (G & F actin)
2) intermediate filaments (nuclear laminin, keratin)
3) microtubules (tubulin)

8

Structure of cell membrane

-phospholipid bilayer
-cholesterol
-proteins
-sphingolipids
-glycolipids

9

Function of cell membrane

1) barrier
2) detect chemical messengers arriving at cell surface
3) link adjacent cells
4) anchor cells to ECM
5) endo/exocytosis
6) allows AP to occur

10

Role of proteins in cell membrane

1) receptors to receive messages
2) protein channels to control cell content
3) maintains structural integrity
4) bind cell to ECM and anchor cells
5) AT pumps

11

What makes up cilia?

Tubulin and dyenin

12

Types of membrane proteins

1) G couples protein receptors (transduction pathways)
2) voltage gated channels (open at certain MP)
3) ligand gated channels (open when something binds to them)
4) mechanically gated channels (open when stretched)

13

Types of cell junction

1) tight, stop certain substances passing through
2) gap, allow passage of small molecules
3) desmosomes, allow degree of stretch (mainly structural not functional)

14

Types of movement across a cell membrane

1) diffusion
2) facilitated diffusion
3) primary AT
4) secondary AT (coupled)
5) exocytosis
6) endocytosis (basic, pinocytosis, receptor mediated)

15

glucose + glucose =

sucrose

16

galactose + glucose =

lactose

17

fructose + glucose =

maltose

18

what are the start and stop codons?

start = AUG
stop = UAA, UAG, UGA

19

Define acid

proton donor

20

define base

proton acceptor

21

define buffer

weak acid with its conjugated base

22

function of enzymes

biological catalysts

23

function of co-enzymes

maximise action of enzymes functional groups

24

Buffers in the body

1) Bicarb
2) Proteins in plasma, contain weak acid/base groups that can 'mop up' H+
3) haemoglobin, transports C02, 02 and buffers H+

25

what is the anion gap?

difference between primary measured cations (+) and primary measured anions (-)

26

define free radical

atom, molecule or ion with an unpaired electron
highly reactive and damaging to DNA

27

examples of free radicals

1) OH (hydroxyl radical)
2) 02- (superoxide)
3) H202

28

What is the benefit of ROS?

Respiratory burst, rapid release of oxygen species from cells (free radicals)
-neutrophils use resp burst to break down bacterial cell walls during phagocytosis
-rapid release of ROS from cells harms bacteria

29

What are the damaging effects of ROS?

-cellular damage
-damages membranes, nucleus and ER