Flashcards in Misc Deck (60):
what is the hering breuer reflex?
stops lungs over stretching
involved with pneumotaxi area
total surface area of lung
Types of hearing loss
neural and conductive
describe lobe dominance
95% of right handed people are left dominant
60% of left handed people are left dominant
93% total population is left dominant
where is Brocas area? What happens when its damaged?
frontal lobe, motor aspect of speech production. Expressive asphasia
where is Wernickes area? What happens when its damaged?
temporal lobe, understanding. Receptive aphasia
Which parts of organ of Corti detect high and low frequency?
Base (towards oval window) - high
apex is low
What are the nerve roots for the branchial plexus branches?
where do you hear for the apex beat?
midclavicular 5th intercostal space
what are the types of immunglobulin
what causes pancreatic juice secretion
where does the aorta bifurcate
where do the seminiferious tubules drain into
what takes place in leydig cells?
what takes place in sertoli cells?
what takes place in epididymis
sperm maturation and storage
what is responsible for over shooting and dance like movements?
corpus striatum dysfunction
what is an amphipathic substance?
both hydrophobic and hydophilic
what structures lie anterior to the oesophagus?
heart (left atrium)
left main bronchus
what goes through the epipolic foramen?
Oesphageal blood supply
upper 1/3 - inferior thyroid
middle 1/3 - abdo aorta branches
lower 1/3 - oesophageal branches from left gastric
where do nasal and temporal fibres project in the retinal ganglion cells?
nasal - to contralateral geniculate corpus
temporal - to ipsilateral geniculate corpus
Rods and Cones differences
Rods, peripheral, lower acuity and light levels, attach to lots of ganglion
cones, higher acuity, colour, 1 per ganglion
type 1 alveolar pneumocyte
makes up wall and structure, determines which substances diffuse through.
make up 96% of SA but only 40% of number of cells (b/c thin and flat)
type 2 alveolar pneumocyte
secrete surfactant, involved in decreasing surface tension to increase stretch and recoil
5% SA 60% total number of cells
1) increases sodium reabsorption in collecting duct
2) increases water reabsorption
3) achieved via NCC and ENaC channels
Bronchial tree structure changes
3) smooth muscle
describe how epithelium changes in bronchial tree
primary/secondary/tertiary bronchi - pseudostratified ciliated columnar
larger bronchioles- ciliated simple columnar w/goblet cells
smaller bronchioles- ciliated simple cuboidal
terminal bronchioles - cuboidal epithelium
describe how cartilage and smooth muscle change in bronchial tree
as you move down cartilage decreases and smooth muscle increases
vas deferens function
combines with seminal vesicle ducts to form ejaculatory duct
what are 3 cylinders of erectile tissues?
2 x corpus cavernosa
1 corpus spongiosum (urethra runs through)
S2 S3 S4
3 layers of cervix and body (of uterus)
3) endometrium (divided into superficial stratum basalis and functionalis (sheds))
layes of vagina
1) stratified squamous epithelium
2) elastic lamina propria
3) fibromuscular layer
angiontensin II effects
2) ADH release
3) aldosterone release
4) increased reabsorption in proximal tubule
in the cytoplasm, structure that is created by covalent bonds
osmoles per kg of solvent
where are central (respiratory) chemoreceptors located? what do they detect
what are peripheral chemoreceptors activated by?
decreased 02 and increased H+
what is the lower oesophageal sphincter
-circular muscle of gastro-osephageal wall
-acute angle 'sling' between oesophagus and stomach
-motility pattern due to innervation from vagus nerve branches
how does urine pass through the ureter?
how much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys?
What is renin secreted in response to?
which group of spinal nerves innervates the biceps reflex?
which group of spinal nerves innervates the ankle reflex?
What is hydroxyapatite made of?
calcium and phosphate
where is 1-25, dihydroxyvitamin D formed?
where is aldosterone produced? what is it?
zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex - mineralocorticoid
2 actions of bradykinin
which enzyme breaks down bradykinin
histological features of secretory endometrium
increased stoma bulk
effects of oestrogen on endometrium
uterine smooth muscle growth
softening cervix & pelvic ligaments
which hormones do glucocorticoids inhibit?
what are bile salts made from?
where are the majority of bile salts absorbed
what does dopamine metabolise into
length of PR interval
length of QRS comples
length of QT interval