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Flashcards in Misc Deck (60):
1

what is the hering breuer reflex?

stops lungs over stretching
involved with pneumotaxi area

2

total surface area of lung

20m^2

3

Types of hearing loss

neural and conductive

4

describe lobe dominance

95% of right handed people are left dominant
60% of left handed people are left dominant
20% shared
93% total population is left dominant

5

where is Brocas area? What happens when its damaged?

frontal lobe, motor aspect of speech production. Expressive asphasia

6

where is Wernickes area? What happens when its damaged?

temporal lobe, understanding. Receptive aphasia

7

Which parts of organ of Corti detect high and low frequency?

Base (towards oval window) - high
apex is low

8

What are the nerve roots for the branchial plexus branches?

musculocutaneous, c5-c7
axillary, c5-c6
median, c6-t1
radial, c5-t1
ulnar, c8-t1

9

where do you hear for the apex beat?

midclavicular 5th intercostal space

10

what are the types of immunglobulin

iM AGED

11

what causes pancreatic juice secretion

secretin

12

where does the aorta bifurcate

L4

13

where do the seminiferious tubules drain into

rete testis

14

what takes place in leydig cells?

testosterone production

15

what takes place in sertoli cells?

spermatogenisis

16

what takes place in epididymis

sperm maturation and storage

17

what is responsible for over shooting and dance like movements?

corpus striatum dysfunction

18

what is an amphipathic substance?

both hydrophobic and hydophilic

19

what structures lie anterior to the oesophagus?

trachea
heart (left atrium)
left main bronchus
diaphragm

20

what goes through the epipolic foramen?

portal vein
hepatic artery
bile duct

21

Oesphageal blood supply

upper 1/3 - inferior thyroid
middle 1/3 - abdo aorta branches
lower 1/3 - oesophageal branches from left gastric

22

where do nasal and temporal fibres project in the retinal ganglion cells?

nasal - to contralateral geniculate corpus
temporal - to ipsilateral geniculate corpus

23

Rods and Cones differences

Rods, peripheral, lower acuity and light levels, attach to lots of ganglion
cones, higher acuity, colour, 1 per ganglion

24

type 1 alveolar pneumocyte

makes up wall and structure, determines which substances diffuse through.
make up 96% of SA but only 40% of number of cells (b/c thin and flat)

25

type 2 alveolar pneumocyte

secrete surfactant, involved in decreasing surface tension to increase stretch and recoil
5% SA 60% total number of cells

26

aldosterone effects

1) increases sodium reabsorption in collecting duct
2) increases water reabsorption
3) achieved via NCC and ENaC channels

27

Bronchial tree structure changes

1) epithelium
2) cartilage
3) smooth muscle

28

describe how epithelium changes in bronchial tree

primary/secondary/tertiary bronchi - pseudostratified ciliated columnar
larger bronchioles- ciliated simple columnar w/goblet cells
smaller bronchioles- ciliated simple cuboidal
terminal bronchioles - cuboidal epithelium

29

describe how cartilage and smooth muscle change in bronchial tree

as you move down cartilage decreases and smooth muscle increases

30

vas deferens function

combines with seminal vesicle ducts to form ejaculatory duct

31

what are 3 cylinders of erectile tissues?

2 x corpus cavernosa
1 corpus spongiosum (urethra runs through)

32

penis innervation

S2 S3 S4

33

3 layers of cervix and body (of uterus)

1) peritoneum
2) myometrium
3) endometrium (divided into superficial stratum basalis and functionalis (sheds))

34

layes of vagina

1) stratified squamous epithelium
2) elastic lamina propria
3) fibromuscular layer
4) adventitia

35

angiontensin II effects

1) thirst
2) ADH release
3) aldosterone release
4) increased reabsorption in proximal tubule
5) vasoconstriction

36

in the cytoplasm, structure that is created by covalent bonds

primary protein

37

define osmolality

osmoles per kg of solvent

38

where are central (respiratory) chemoreceptors located? what do they detect

ventral medulla
CSF pH

39

what are peripheral chemoreceptors activated by?

decreased 02 and increased H+

40

what is the lower oesophageal sphincter

-circular muscle of gastro-osephageal wall
-acute angle 'sling' between oesophagus and stomach
-motility pattern due to innervation from vagus nerve branches
-the diaphragm

41

how does urine pass through the ureter?

peristalsis

42

how much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys?

25%

43

What is renin secreted in response to?

low sodium

44

which group of spinal nerves innervates the biceps reflex?

C5/C6

45

which group of spinal nerves innervates the ankle reflex?

S1/S2

46

What is hydroxyapatite made of?

calcium and phosphate

47

where is 1-25, dihydroxyvitamin D formed?

kidney

48

where is aldosterone produced? what is it?

zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex - mineralocorticoid

49

2 actions of bradykinin

pain
vasodilation

50

which enzyme breaks down bradykinin

ACE

51

histological features of secretory endometrium

spiral arteries
tortuous glands
increased stoma bulk

52

effects of oestrogen on endometrium

uterine smooth muscle growth
softening cervix & pelvic ligaments

53

which hormones do glucocorticoids inhibit?

ACTH
CRH

54

what are bile salts made from?

cholesterol
lecithin

55

where are the majority of bile salts absorbed

terminal ileum

56

what does dopamine metabolise into

neuromelanin
noradrenaline

57

length of PR interval

0.12-0.2 (s)

58

length of QRS comples

0.08-0.10 (s)

59

length of QT interval

0.4-0.43 (s)

60

ear muscles and innervation

tensor tympani mandibular branch of trigeminal
stapedius facial