immune system pt 1 Flashcards Preview

Gen Med > immune system pt 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in immune system pt 1 Deck (41):
1

initiate immunity

nonspecific
non adaptive

2

acquired immunity

specific - recognizes and destroys foreign substances

memory - when same organism is encountered again, body will respond quicker and stronger

3

immunology

study of mechanism that allows the body to recognize materials as foreign and to neutralize/eliminate them

4

major histocompotbility complex proteins

surface markers on your own body's cells that are unique to you like your fingerprints --> self tolerance

now called human leukocytic antigens HLA

5

antigen

any foreign substance that can cause an immune repsonse

6

epitope

subunits of AG surfaces that can illicit an immune repsonse

7

antibody

"Y" shaped protein molecules that can bind to a specific Ag and disable them

8

immunoglobulin

antibodies of a particular type

9

starting an immune response

carefully orchestrated and controlled interaction b/n immune cells w/ the ultimate goal to eliminate the invader by pathogenic specific mechanism

10

immune cells develop

in primary organs (bone marrow and thymus)

11

immune response occur

secondary organs

12

thymus

glandular organ near heart where T cells learn their jobs

13

bone marrow

blood producing tissue located inside certain bones
blood stem cells give rise to all of the different types of blood cells

14

spleet

serves as a filter for the blood
removes old and damaged RBC
removes infectious agents and uses them to activate cells called lympocytes

15

lymph nodes

small organs that filter out dead cells, antigens, and other stuff to present to lympocytes

16

lymphatic vessels

collect fluid that has leaked out from the blog into tissues and returns it to circulation

17

physical barriers

skin (first and best)
hair
mucous

18

chemical barriers

sweat
tears
saliva
stomach acid
urine

19

inflammatory response

chemical and cell respond to injury or localized infection
eliminates the source of infection
promotes wound healing

20

innate - inflammatory response step 1

circulation to the site increases - tissue warm, red and swollen

21

innate - inflammatory response step 2

WBCs leak into tissue-phagocytes engulf and destroy bacteria

22

release of histamine and prostaglandin cause

local vessel dilation -->
more WBCs to site
increased blood flow
increased capillary permeability
phagocytes move out of vessels into intracellular fluid
edema due to fluids seeping from cpaillaries

23

positive effect of fever

indicate rx to infection
stimulate phagocytosis
slow bacterial growth
increased body temp beyond tolerance of some bacteria

24

negative effect of fever

extreme heat - enzyme denaturation and interruption of normal biochecm rex
>39C (103F) is dangerous
>41 C (105F) could be fatal and requires med attention

25

acquired immunity systems

humoral immune
cell-mediate immune

overlap and interact, failure of one will alter effectiveness of other - more complex than innate b/c certain cells present to certain Ag

26

humoral immune system

mediated by B cells

specific receptors - on B cell surface specific for only one type of AG

27

B cells produce

Plasma cell - ultimately secrete AB

memory cells - respond to second exposure of same AG

28

HI - Ab/Ig properties

specific protein molecules secreted by stimulated plasma cells
circulate freely in body fluids
effectively bind w/ invading antigens to form Ag-Ab complexes

29

opsonization (Role of Ag-Ab complexes)

bio amplification
incorporating the Ag into larger complex making them more obvious

30

complement (C') (Role of Ag-Ab complexes)

binds the Ag-Ab complex to lyses Ag

31

neutralization (Role of Ag-Ab complexes)

some Ag's are neutralized merely by binding w/ Ab

32

Roles of Ag-Ab complexes

1. opsonization
2. complement
3. neutralization

33

Hi classes of IG

IgG
IgM
IgA
IgE
IgD

34

IgG

major antibacterial and antiviral
predominant Ig in blood
responsible for the protection of the newborn during first 6 months of life
major Ig synthesis during 2nd immune response --> long term/permanent immunity

35

only Ig to cross placenta

IgG

36

IgM

produced first in immune response largest Ig

37

Ig produced first in immune repsonse

IgM

38

IgA

defend external body surfaces
found in high conc in areas w/ high mucous membranes
found in secretions
found in respiratory, GI and genitourinary secretions

39

IgE

fx during allergic rx by activating mast cells and releasing histamine
response is normal reaction but become excessive in those w/ allergies
primary factor in eliminating parasitic infections

40

IgD

found on b-cell sufaces

mainly an Ag receptor
may fx in controlling lymphocyte activation or suppression

41

HI involved in

1. bacterial infections
2. some viral infections
3. allergies
4. anaphylactic shock
5. cancer surveillance