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Flashcards in immunity pt 2 Deck (46):
1

cell mediated immunity

T-lymphocytes - start in pone marrow, mature in thymus

activated with Ag --> sensitized T cell

2

activated T cell roles

production of lympohkines
cytotoxic T cells
T helper cells
T suppressor cells
T memory cells

3

CD4 T - cells

75% of all T cells
secrete lymphkines

4

lymphokines - MIF

migration inhibitory factor
inhibits microphages from leaving

5

lymphokines - MCF

macrophage chemotactic factor
attracts macrophages to site of Ag

6

lymphokines - BF

blastogenic factor
induces proliferation of more specific T cells and B cells

7

lymphokines - interferon

antiviral agent
interferes w/ viral replication

8

suppressor or regulator T cells

suppress activation of the immune system and prevent pathological self reactivity or autoimmune diease

9

cytotoxic T cells (CD8)

helps other T cells recognize and destroy virally infected cells

10

T memory cells

repsond to second exposure of the same Ag must chaster as a rule

11

cell mediate immunity involved in

viral infections
fungal infections
some bacterial infections
delayed hypersensititivies
graft rejection
cancer suveillance

12

HI review

directly from bone marrow
larger cells
shorter life span (days)
non circulating

13

CMI review

starts in bone marrow - mature in thymus
small cells
longer life span (weeks)
circulating cells

14

innate states of immunity

physiological
anatomical

15

acquired states of immunity

artificial
natural
active
passive

16

active acquired immunity

protection acquired by introduction of an Ag
intended to last a lifetime BUT some mutate too quickly for vaccine to keep up (flu)

17

passive acquired immunity - naturally

Ab transplacentally or through colostrum and breast milk

18

passive acquired immunity - artificially

Ab or sensitized lymphocytes produced by one person are transferred to another
usually short duration - until Ab are degrated

19

two phases in generation of an immune reponse

primary and secondary

20

primary response

when Ag is first encountered
slow
weak response allows invader enough time to cause illness

IgM first to be produced

21

secondary response

the next time the antigen is encountered

quicker and stronger each time
memory B cells recognize antigen and all begin to divide quickly
lots of plasma cells - esp IgG

22

immune response will end when

the antigen that caused it is no longer present.

23

aging and immune system

immune fx declines w/ increasing age
changes are observed in both innate and acquired immunity defenses
end result is reduced resistance to pathogens and increased incidence of tumors and autoimmune disorders

24

iatrogenic

medical disorder caused by diagnosis manner or treatment of a physician

urinary catheters, nasogastric tubes, chest tubes, external fixations devices, implanted prostheses

25

exercise

can suppress immune function depending on intensity, activity or exercise

moderate exercise can enhance the immune system

strenuous/long duration ex followed by impairment of the immune system

26

mild respiratory infections

don't need to restrict training/competition

but many report increase in symptoms after stenuous training and a decline in symptoms after moderated training

27

AIDS

HIV 1 and 2

characterized by progressive destruction of Cmi changes in HI

leaves infected person susceptible to opportunistic infections

28

HIV infection spectrum

1. asymptomatic HIV seropositive - State I
2. early symptomatic HIV - stage II
3. HIV advanced disease (AIDS) - stage III

29

does everyone who is exposed to HIV develop AIDS?

no

30

AIDS pathogenesis

infection by HIV retrovirus (only detectable by lab tests) infects human T4 (destroys or inactivates them). Macrophages and B cells are also infected. CD4 cells have receptors allowing direct passage of infection to target cells. viral genome eventually becomes integrated into host DNA and duplicated --> cell death.

31

seroconversion (HIV +)

usually takes place during first 3-6 weeks of viral replication but can take longer

after a few months, very little HIV virus is found - only HIB Ab remain in serum

32

asymptomatic HIV seropositive (Stage I)

CD4 > 500 cells / mL
demonstrates lab evidence of seroconversion but remains asymptomatic
clinically healthy; normal activities, work habits and unrestricted level and duration of exercise

33

early symptomatic HIV (stage II)

CD4 count 200-500 cells / m:
immune system more compomised

variedy of symptoms - diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, fevers

more than half of the adults w/ HIV report fatigue that limits physical and recreation activities (half unable to attend school/work)

34

HIV advanced disease (Stage III)

CD4 < 200 cells/mL

neuro manifestations are many and can involve central, peripheral, autonomic NS

HIV or AIDS encephalophaty primary infection of brain

more advanced: severe dementia, mutism, incontinence, paraplegia may occur

dermatological conditions - malignancies, bacterial, viral, fungal

35

AIDs pain syndromes

1. pain directly related to HIV infection or immunosuppression
2. pain caused by HIV diagnostic procedures and tx
3. pain unrelated to AIDS or its tx

36

AIDS and rehab

should be like a chronic illness on a continuum
physical fitness and strength training, ADL's pain management, posture, gait, balance; be aware of seizures and cognitive deficits
advanced stages will find CP complications; muscles and joint mobe tenchinqiues and breathing exercises

37

HIV and exercise

exercise does not exacerbate the progression of HIV and may slow it

moderate aerobic exercise can increase helper T cell and NK cell counts

no limitations in individuals in Stage I

38

exercise and HIV Stage II and III

will require more individualized exercises prescriptions and lower intensities

Stage III strenuous exercise not reocommended

39

Chronic fatigue syndrome

unexplained fatigue > 6 months

initially flu like: sore throat, fever, muscle pain, etc

progresses: muscle pain and forgetfulness increase as well as prolonged and overwhelming fatigue]
cyclical pattern of remission and relapse

40

CFS medical management

no physical signs or dx lab test to ID

no known cure

tx aimed at symptom relief and improved function

41

FCS and exercise

reduced stress diet, prevent overexertion.

MODERATE EXERICSE

monitor vitals

42

autoimmune disease

conditions which cause the immune system to turn on itself and become destructive

failure to distinguish from self and non self

systemic or just a single organ

43

organ specific autoimmune disorders

addison's disease
crohn's disease
chronic active hepatities
DM
grave's disease
hasimoto's diease

44

systemic autoimmune disorders

ankylosis spondylitis
MS
myasthenia gravis
RA
systemic lupus arythematosus

45

fibromyalgia syndrome

falls under rheumatology and commonly associated with other conditions
trigged by emotional stress, viral infection, or trauma.
pain is main issue

46

FMS and exercise

lifestyle, ADLS and monitoring of vital

CV fitness training, flexibility exercises, and strength training can improve symptoms

acute: aquatic therapy

avoid overexertion