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Flashcards in Lab Values Deck (41):
1

WBC

White blood cell count
Indicates fx status of immune system
5,000-10,000 uL

2

Leukocytosis

High WBC
Due to acute/chronic infection or malignancy

3

Leukopenia

Low WBC
Disease of immune system or radiation/chemo

4

WBC implication for tx

>11,000 may have decreased tolerance to activity

<5,000 w/ fever - consider postponing due to risk of infection

5

Hct

Hemotcrit - vol of RBC in whole blood
Eval Armenia and abnormal state of hydration

Male 42-52%
Female 37-47%

6

Increased Hct

Tobacco use, severe Lung disease

7

Decreased Hct

Anemia or hemodilution

8

Hct implications for tax

Low: weakness, fatigue, DOE, tachycardia
25-30% consider modifying tx
<25% consider postponing tx
Frequent vital monitoring and rest period recommended

9

Hb

Hemoglobin- reflects O2 carrying component of RBC - indicates severity of anemia
Male: 14-18 g/dL
Female: 12-16 g/dL

10

Hb levels

Increased: smokers and lung disease
Decreased: anemia

11

Hb implications for tax

8-10 g/dL —> modify due to reduced exercise capacity

<8 g/dL—>consider postponing tax

12

Plts

Platelets - clotting process, bleeding stopped and would healing begins

150,000-400,000

13

Thrombocytosis

High Plt count
Iron deficiency, neoplasm, inflammation, infection

14

Thrombocytopenia

Low Plt count
Liver disease, platelet disorders, viral infection

15

Plts implication for tx

-low levels, bleeding can occur form mucosal surfaces w/ inor truama
-20,000-50,000 light AROM if asymptomatic; gait training as tolerated, no resistive
<20,000 NO TX!!

16

Na

Sodium - electrolyte important in nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cell fx

Changes cause cells to shrink or swell

136-145 mEq/L

17

Hypernatremia

Increased NA

>160 mEq/L

18

Hyponatremia

Decreased Na

<120 mEq/L

19

Na levels affected by

Diuretics, diarrhea, CHF

20

Na implications for tx

Be aware of potential symtpoms when Na is LOW:
Weakness, confusion, stupor, hypotension, seizures, edema, weight gain

21

K

Potassium - electrolyte important for muscle and nerve conduction

3.5-5.0 mEq/L

22

Hyperkalemia

Increased K - due to kidney disease or certain meds
Can produce EEG changes, nausea, diarrhea

23

Hypokalemia

Decreased K - caused by diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration
Can lead to dangerous ventricular arrhythmia, cardiac irritability, dizziness, hypotension

24

K implications for tx

Minor changes can have sig consequence for cardiac fx.
Pts w/ abnormal K should be seen for tx after the levels have been corrected

25

BUN

Blood urea nitrogen - waist product for protein metabolism, directly related to metabolic fx of liver and excretory fx of kidneys

10-20 mg/dL

26

BUN levels

Increased: renal and liver disease pt may need dialysis, kidneys not fx properly

Decreased: inadequate protein intake, malabsorption, liver damage

27

BUN implications for tx

No specific activity guidelines but pt w/ renal dysfunction may experience fatigue, muscle weakness, decreased mental status as BUN levels rise

28

Creatinine

By product of normal muscle metabolism, regulated and excreted by kidney

.6-1.2 mg/dL

29

Creatinine levels

High: reflect worsening kidney fx

Low: inadequate protein intake, liver disease, kidney damage

30

Creatinine implications for tx

No specific activity guidelines but patients with renal dysfunction may experience fatigue, muscle weakness, and decreased mental status as creatinine levels rise

31

Blood glucose

Measure of sugar content in blood - detect hyper, hypo, and diabetes

Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL

32

Hypoglycemia

Low blood glucose
Can lead to low activity tolerance
Sweating, hunger, trembling, anxiety, blurred vision, confusion
<60 mg/dL = hold tx until it has been corrected

33

Hyperglycemia

High blood glucose - can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis

Increased thirst, fatigue, blurred vision,
<300-350 mg/dL = hold tx

34

A1C test

Blood test provides info about average blood close level over past 3mo
<5.7% =normal
5.7-6.4% = prediabetes
>6.5% = diabetes

35

Coagulation profiles

Determine ability to initiation clotting sequence - dx clotting disorders, monitor anticoagulant therapy

36

“Therapeutic level” for coagulation

Level when the blood has been sufficiently antigoagulated given pt’s medical condition

37

PT or Pro Time

Prothrombin time - test to screen for bleeding disorders, measures the clotting time

Monitors effectiveness of oral anticoagulant therapy

11-12.5 seconds

38

Pro Time implications for tx

Patients receiving anticoagulant therapy may have levels that are 2 - 3 times the laboratory control values

With abnormally high levels, treatment may
be held due to increased risk of bleeding

39

PTT

Partial thromboplastin Time - measures clotting time in plasma - disorders of both excessive clotting and excessive bleeding

Monitors effectiveness of heparin anticoagulant therapy

30-40 seconds

40

PTT implications for tx

Patients receiving anticoagulant therapy mayhave levels that are 1.5 – 2.5 times the laboratory control values

With abnormally high levels, treatment may
be held due to increased risk of bleeding

41

Chart

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