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Higher Human Biology - Unit 3 > Immunisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (7)
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What is immunisation?

This is the process by which a person develops immunity to a disease causing organism


Immunity can be developed by what?

By vaccination using antigens from an infectious pathogen, so creating memory cells


What makes a vaccine more effective?

Antigens from infectious pahtogens, mixed with an adjuvant makes a vaccine more effective enhancing the immune response, which are used in various forms:

-Inactivated Pathogen Toxins
-Dead Pathogens
-Parts of Pathogens
-Weakened Pathogens


What is herd immunity?

This occurs when a large percentage of the population are immunised which helps reduce the spread of diseases

Non-immune individuals are protected as there is a less chance they will come into contact with an infected individual


Herd immunity's threshold depends on what?

The type of disease, effectiveness of the vaccine and the density of the population


What are mass vaccine programmes designed for?

To establish herd immunity to a disease

Difficulties arise when widespread vaccination isn't possible doe to poverty in the developing word and due to vaccines being rejected by a percentage of the population in the developed world


What is antigenic variation?

This is when some pathogens can change their antigens meaning memory cells are not effective against them

This is one of the main reason influenza is still a major health problem and why at risk individuals need to be vaccinated every year