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Higher Human Biology - Unit 3 > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (11)
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What is memory?

It involves the encoding, storage and retrieval of information

It includes past experiences, knowledge and thoughts

All information passes through the brain


What does sensory memory do?

Retains all visual and auditory input and only lasts a few seconds

But only selected images and sounds are encoded into STM


What does short term memory do?

Holds a limited capacity and holds information for a short time


How can the capacity of the STM be improved?

Through chunking (meaningful units of information) and rehearsal


What is the serial position effect in relation to the STM?

The items at the start of the list and items at the end are remembered better than those in the middle


How are items lost in the STM?

Through either displacement (pushed out by new ones) or decay (breakdown or memory trace)


Information on STM...

It can process data to a limited extent, as well as store it - known as working memory as its why STM cant perform simple cognitive tasks


What does long term memory do?

Stores an unlimited amount of information for a long period of time


How is a successful transfer from STM to LTM done?

It is promoted by rehearsal, organisation (into logical categories) and elaboration of meaning (give meaning to an item)


How can information be encoded in LTM?

By either using shallow encoding (rehearsal) or elaborative encoding (elaboration - deeper form of encoding leading to improved retention)


How are memory's from LTM retrieved?

It is aided by the use of contextual cues (signals related to the time and place that were present when information was encoded)