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Flashcards in Immuno 1 Deck (26):
1

definition of immunity

ability to resist organisms or toxins that tend to damage tissues and organs

2

textbook definition of antigen

specific chemical compound in the organism or toxin that causes an immune reaction

3

structure of an antigen is either

protein, polysaccharide, or nucleic acids

4

size of antigen

large, macromolecules

5

what group is on the surface of antigens

radical groups
(component of immune system can always recognize them on the surface)

6

what is an antigen radical group

a group of atoms that stays in the same formation no matter what happens to the macromolecule
-a constant feature

7

2 parts to the human immune system

innate immunity (primitive)
adaptive immunity

8

fundamentals of innate immunity

-directed against primary infection
-does not require prior exposure to the pathogen
-general, first line of defense

9

list the 6 strategies of innate immunity

1. barriers
2. macrophage activity
3. high vascularity
4. flushing
5. complement
6. natural killer cell

10

strategies of innate immunity:
-macrophage activity

cells that will invest other cells (invaders), will "shoot" at anything threatening

11

strategies of innate immunity:
-high vascularity

lots of blood vessels allow macrophages to get there, to protect tissue "supply lines"

12

strategies of innate immunity:
-complement

once complement is activated, it can punch a hole in cell wall of bacteria

13

strategies of innate immunity:
-natural killer cell

will kill bacteria, parasites, and virus in infected cell

14

examples of innate immunity in the eye:

-anatomical barriers (orbit, eyelid, eyelashes)
-flushing (tears)
-vascularity (lots of vessels around and leading to eye)

15

adaptive immunity requires

prior contact with that antigen

16

adaptive immunity helps what become more efficient?

-innate immunity efficacy: helps with disposal by flagging and helping with adherence of macrophages

17

list 2 forms of adaptive immunity

1. cellular (cell-mediated)
2. humoral

18

cell mediated immunity is when

antibodies stay on the surface of that cell that produced the antibodies
-long lasting

19

example of cell mediated immunity

measles
(if you get it as a kid, you will never get it again)
-lifelong immunity

20

humoral immunity is when

cells that produce antibodies release those antibodies into the blood stream
-short lived

21

example of humoral immunity

needing boosters for immunizations such as TD

22

the active stimulation of adaptive immunity is when

you actually contract the disease or active immunizations and your body makes antibodies

23

the passive stimulation of adaptive immunity is when

you are given antibodies from another source
example is rattlesnake bite and injection of antibodies against rattlesnake venom

24

what is unique about vertebrates?

-adaptive immunity
-lymphatic system
-relatively high blood pressure vascular system

25

important facts about lymphatic vessels

-sealed at one end (blind ended)
-have larger spaces (pores) in between cells of lymphatic vessels than in capillaries

26

purpose of lymphatic vessels

to collect the fluid pushed out of blood from the capillaries and run it back to blood vascular system