Flashcards in Immuno 2 Deck (32):
lymph vessel muscular movements are to
help move lymph through vessel and return lymph back to blood venous system
2/3 of lymph returns to the venous system via
a duct in the Left upper chest (thorax)
1/3 of the lymph returns to the venous system via
a duct in the Right upper chest (thorax)
are lymph nodes an organ?
yes, they are encapsulated with specific parts
first lymph node on a route encounters
-pathogen (invaders) themselves
-B and T lymphocytes
(invaders and key players of immune system connecting here)
what is the eye disease EKC?
(affects conjunctiva and cornea)
how do pre auricular nodes relate to diagnosis of EKC?
palpating the pre auricular nodes (in front of the ears) may be swollen or sore
(the drainage of the eye goes to this lymph node first)
what are the two conditions of viral infection
-virus is in interstitial fluid, floating around, and an easy target
-virus is in cell and using host cell machinery
viral infection inside the cell has a _____ response activated
examples of cellular response with virus inside cell
-tumor (changed cell with antigen presenting)
-transplant rejection (foreign cells in body)
bacterial or viral infection outside of cell has _____ response activated
immune cell, lymphocyte, involved with cellular response
immune cell, lymphocyte, involved with humoral response
when is it determined that a lymphocyte will become a B or T cell?
predetermined during embryonic development, certain number of each one is pre-programmed
precursor cells for B/T lymphocytes are ____ cells found where?
stem cells found in the blood forming stem cells in the embryo
organ involved in processing during embryonic development for B cells
bursal equivalent cells
(named after Bursa of Fabricius in chicken)
organ involved in processing during embryonic development of T cells
thymus (larger as a child, and disappears as an adult)
-thymus is found in chest behind sternum in midline
for B lymphocytes, where do cells migrate to from the bursal equivalent cells
they migrate to peripheral sites in lymph nodes
where do B cells migrate to in the lymph node
gearing up of the immune system to produce the B cells is called
how is clonal selection triggered?
BCR (B cell receptor) test batch of antibodies on the surface are looking for antigens they can hook up to
-if B cell comes upon antigen and binds to it, you start process that triggers B cells
what occurs in clonal selection when B cells are triggered and how many antibodies /week could they make ?
B cells that are triggered double in size and start dividing (proliferation)
could produce 20,000 B cells/ week
the activated B cells that are proliferated and activated are now called
where do plasma cells go and how fast can they make antibodies ?
they go to the site of infection and produce about 2,000 antibodies/ second there
how long is the plasma cell lifespan
they don't divide and last for about a week
processed T cell is called a
competent cell (ready to be part of immune system)
where do competent T cells migrate to in the lymph nodes
paracortical area (just inside cortex) of lymph nodes
list 3 types of T cells based on function
killer T cells
cytotoxic lymphocytes (CDL)
-encounter cells with virus in it, and respond by destroying that cell
helper T cells
(TH) "quarterback" cell of adaptive system that secretes cytokines that help coordinate the response
regulatory T cells
not much know, but thought that it regulates there response