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Flashcards in Immuno, Lecture 1 Deck (23):
1

Pathogenic organisms

Virus: small particle, not alive

-shows property of being alive when contacted with host -intracellular affecting agent

ex: HIV, polio, Hep B

 

Bacteria: waterborne illnesses kill millions

ex: mycobacteria (TB), bacteroides (GI),

 

Protozoa: divide/replicate much more rapidly than human cells

-antibiotics disrupt their replication

ex: malaria, trypanosomes

 

Worms/helminthes: tape worms

2

Fever Clinical Correlation

optical density vs. temperature (Fahrenheit)

the most growth of bacteria occurs at our normal body temperature but once the temperature increases, growth is inhibited thus the need/necessity for fever!!

3

Yeast Infection Correlation

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a major component of vaginal microflora

Metabolism of glycogen by L. acidophilus results in pH of 5.0 that prevents vaginal colonization by yeasts which often causes vaginitis (inflammation of vagina resulting in discharge and itching)

4

Microflora

community of organisms that live in a particular habitat (GI, skin, oral...)

numerous amounts found in intestine important in molecular signaling for immune system

5

Germ-free animals

Germ free animals are obtained from cesarean section (do not go through microflora in vagina)

If kept in sterile conditions, they will not develop commensal microflora

6

Germ Theory

a particular germ can cause a particular disease needs Koch's postulates

7

Koch's postulates

I. Infected tissue must show the presence of a particular microorganism that is not found in healthy animals

II. The microorganism must be isolated and grown in a pure culture;

III. When injected into a healthy animal, the microorganism must cause the disease associated with it

IV. This “second generation” microorganism should then be isolated

8

Gram Positive Bacterial Infection

Use of crystal violet turns the sample purple due to binding to peptidoglycan

9

Gram Negative Bacterial Infection

Normally a pink color does not have very much peptidoglycan instead has lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

10

Intracellular Pathogens

Cytoplasmic: Bacteria, viruses, protozoa,

Vesicular: Bacteria, mycobacteria

Immune functions:

NK cells

T cells

Macrophages

CTLs

Intracellular Microbes: invade and replicate intracellularly in animal cells utilize host-cell energy sources

11

Extracellular Pathogens

Immune function against:

Intraepithelial PMNs cells

Antibodies

Extracellular Pathogens: able to survive in animals by growing extracellularly and being submersed in nutrients

12

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

causes tuberculosis

Macrophage activation resulting in granulomatous inflammation and tissue destruction

13

Endotoxins

components of bacterial cell wall only used when bacteria is destroyed because otherwise it is needed for membrane integrity

all gram negative bacteria have endotoxins

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Exotoxins

actively secreted by the bacteria

15

Extracellular bacteria

replicate outside of the host cell:

-circulation

-connective tissue

-airways

-GI tract

 

2 pathogenic mechanisms:

1. bacteria causes inflammation which results in tissue destruction (fever)

2. bacteria produce toxins with pathological effects (endotoxins and exotoxins)

16

Autoimmune response

immune function is disrupted and recognizes self as pathogen

Antigens recognized to imitate a response onto itself

17

Antigen (Ag)

non-infectious foreign substance and can elicit an immune response

18

Collateral Damage

cell/tissue damage that occurs due to inflammation or other processes to destroy pathogen normally self inflicted

19

Primary Fixed Elements

Bone marrow- provide mature B cells

Thymus- provide mature T cells

20

Secondary Fixed Elements

-Spleen and lymph nodes

-Mucosal immune tissues

21

Mobile Elements

Immune cells

Soluble (Humoral) components

-antibodies

-complement

-acute phase proteins (cause fever)

22

Mast cell

derived from basophils found only in tissues (not in the circulation)

23

Monocytes

precursor to macrophages monocytes are found in circulation macrophages are found in the tissue