Innate Immunity, Lecture 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Innate Immunity, Lecture 2 Deck (30):
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Infection

Invasion of host tissues or cells by disease causing organisms called pathogens

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Calor

Heat

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Rubor

Redness

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Dolor

Pain

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Tumor

Swelling

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Functio Laesa

Loss of function

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Innate (natural) responses

-occur to the same extent every time the infectious agent is encountered

-takes a few hours

-most pathogens stay/are destroyed in the innate pathway

ex: phagocytes, natural killer cells, blood components

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Acquired (adaptive) response

Improve on repeated exposure to given infection

-takes days to weeks

ex: generation of specific receptors

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Health vs. Disease balance

Health: destruction of cancer cells and infectious organisms vs. Disease: allergy, transplant rejection, autoimmune disease, immunodeficiency

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Immunodeficiency

acquired, caused by HIV

-targets component of adaptive immunity especially T receptors which are for CDC4 cells??

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Vaccines

result in an antibody response

normally for extracellular pathogens

BCG - for Tuberculosis, attenuates the virus and thus makes it not infectious, (only vaccine for intracellular pathogen)

cannot give to immunodeficient patients

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Innate Immunity

-first line of defense against infection

- works rapidly

- gives rise to an acute inflammation

- has some specificity for Ag

- has no memory

-0-12 hours

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Acquired Immunity

– longer to develop

-is highly specific -

-shows memory (remembers Ag it has encountered previously)

ex: B cells and effector T cells are highly selective

12 hours to 7+ days

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Defense Systems

1. Barriers

2. Innate immunity (larger than adaptive immunity)

    -Humoral -Cellular

3. Immune system (aka: adaptive immunity)

    -Humoral -Cellular

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Barriers

Skin Mucous epithelia

Ciliated epithelia

Lysozyme in fluids

Pepsin-HCL system

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Innate Immunity; Humoral

-Bactericidal substances

-Proteins and peptides

-The complement system

-Acute phase proteins

-Transport proteins

-Coagulation proteins

-Interferons

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Innate Immunity; Cellular

Blood cells:

-Neutrophils

-Eosinophils

-Basophils

-Monocytes

-Lymphocytes

-Natural killer (NK) cells

 

Tissue:

-Macrophages

-Dendritic cells

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Immune System; Humoral

B-cell produced antibodies

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Immune System; Cellular

Cytotoxic T cells

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Dendritic Cells

-derived from macrophages

-are present in the interphase transferring assessment of early infection of adaptive immunity

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Macrophages

Sentinel (resident) cell of innate immunity

 

Contains both PAMPs and PRRs

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Cytokines

mediator that causes vasodilation and increased permeability

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Phases of Immunity

Phase 1: Occurs from start of infection to end of infection

Non-Induced Innate/Non-specific response:

Performed Defense: skin barrier, pH, saliva proteases

 

Phase 2: 4-96 hours until end of infection

Induced Innate/Broadly Specific response

Performed Defense: Phagocytosis, complement activation, other inflammatory mechanisms, cytokine secretion

 

Phase 3: after 96 hours (4 days)

Induced Adaptive/Highly Specific response

Performed Defense: B cells (Ab), helper T cells, cytolytic T cells

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Innate Immune Cells

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Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)

A image thumb
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Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)

Cell receptors that recognize PAMPs

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Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

Helps discriminate between self and non-self

No structural similarity between PAMPs and Ag

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Germ line encoded

sequences found in gamete producing cells

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Cytokines

small proteins (peptides) secreted by many cells

cytokines from immune cells mediate inflammation, immunity, and hematopoeisis

can operate as endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine

 

Pro-inflammatory cytokines: stimulate inflammation

Anti-inflammatory cytokines: inhibit inflammation

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Chemokines

small protein chemoattractants important for trafficking of immune cells