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Flashcards in Immunoassays Deck (16):


many B cells respond to antigen, antibodies to many different antigen in serum, multiple specificities and affinities


affinity purify

purify antibody you want


monoclonal antibodies

single clone of one B cell is produced by fusing that cell to a tumor cell and isolating the clone with the antibody specificity of interest. (drugs can now target specific antigen)

produces population of antibody molecules that are absolutely identical with same specificity. there is no heterogeneity.



immortal and monoclonal, result of a fusion between B cells and myeloma (tumor cells that are immortal)


serum sickness

hypersensitivity reaction, immune system reaction to antiserum, can result in fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes


ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbant assay

most common assay (ex. home pregnancy test), secondary antibody linked with enzyme is used that changes color, the more significant the color change, the more antibody/enzyme is bound to it (increase concentration)

coat plastic wells with antibody to IL-2. add solution of IL-2. wash away unbound IL-2. monitor conc of IL-2 by adding secondary antibody linked with enzyme that binds to first antibody.

used to assay for antibody or antigen


flow cytometry

mixture of cells labeled with fluorescent antibodies is sent through a stream and is counted by detector


western blot

determines apparent molecular weight and concentration of antigen, separates protein by size, uses antibody to see if there is a specific protein

electric current, separates proteins by size, similar to ELISA, chemical agent glows in dark if enzyme is present.


tetanus toxins

will kill you before your body develops antibodies to it


tetanus toxoid

neutralized toxin that is used in vaccines


affinity purify antibody

makes the antibody more specific by purifying the antibody you want


absorb the cross reacting antibody

makes the antibody more specific by removing the contaminating antibody


framework residues

part of the variable region, do not vary much from one protein to another, forms the bulk of the variable region


hypervariable region

provide sequence of the very specific antigen binding site, part of the variable region, forms the very tip of the variable region that binds to antigen


preparation of monoclonal antibodies

immunize animal, isolate spleen cells, fuse spleen cells with tumor cells, select hybrids of tumor and b cells, clone hybridomas, select individual clone with specificity you are interested in



can be used to identify a specific cell type or find a specific cellular structure. It may also be used to identify a pathogen within cells or tissue