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Immunology > Transplant immunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transplant immunity Deck (17):
1

transplant rejection

when a kidney is transplanted, the recipient's T cells attack the transplant

2

graft vs host disease

when the bone marrow is transplanted, the T cells in the transplant attack the recipient's tissue

3

blood group antigens

simple polysaccharide, body makes antibodies against antigen we don't have. body only makes antibodies against Rh after initial exposure

4

hyperacute rejection

most severe and immediate type of rejection. caused by preformed antibodies that react to the transplanted organ.

5

reasons why someone may have antibodies to HLA (IgG antibodies)

previous transplant, blood transfusions, woman who gives birth

6

panel reactive antibody

serum of a recipient is tested against a panel of leukocytes from many individuals, detection of the presence of antibodies to HLA

7

acute rejection

process in which T cells from the recipient becomes reactive against transplant. process takes days to weeks. stronger response is to donor cells expressing MHC class 2.

where most immune suppression therapies are directed towards.

8

chronic rejection

takes months or years. result of indirect recognition of the transplant. towards MHC molecules or other minor transplantation antigens. associated with the presence of antibodies to HLA-class 1 antigens in the graft which seem to act on the vasculature of the graph.

9

alloantibodies

against same species, different MHC.

10

Prevent Rejection by

matching HLA, testing at transplantation, workup for transplantation, anti ABC antibody testing

11

corticosteroids

transplant therapy, interferes with transcription factor needed to turn on the genes for T cells to become activated. reduce inflammation.

ex. prednisone, prednisolone

12

cytotoxic drugs

transplant therapy, interfere with DNA synthesis, interferes with rapid cell proliferation needed for immune response

ex. azathioprine, imuran (purine analog)

13

FK506 and cyclosporine

inhibit the signaling pathway used by T cells to turn on their genes for activation

14

Antilymphocyte (thymocyte) globulin (ALG or ATG)

contains antibodies from horses or rabbits directed against T cells so no serum sickness

15

CTLA4-IG

protein produced by recombinant DNA technology

binds with B7 so cell cannot present antigen to T cell.

16

downsides of transplant rejection therapies

infections: bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic

17

bone marrow transplant

needed for children with SKIDs, certain patients with leukemia, lymphoma

allogeneic (other person) vs autologous (self) tranplant