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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (59)
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1

what are the functions of the lymphatic system?

drainage of tissue
absorption and transport of fatty acids and fats
immunity

2

what are the differences between lymphatic vessels and blood vessels?

lymphatic vessels are blind ended
cells that form lymph vessels are more delicate

3

what are the 3 phases of immune defence

recognition of danger
production of specific weapons
transport of weapons to site of attack

4

where are blood cells produced?

bone marrow
thymus
these are primary lymphoid organs

5

what is haematopoiesis?

formation and activation of blood cells

6

what is the function of the thymus?

"education" of T cells

7

what is the function of secondary lymphoid organs?

sites of lymphocyte activation by antigens

8

what 2 areas is the spleen divided into?

red pulp and white pulp

9

what is the function of the spleen?

filtration of blood

10

what separates red and white pulp?

marginal zone

11

what is a high endothelial venule?

simple columnar cells line venules, they are slightly looser than normal venules, which allows fluid and lymphocytes to leak out of the blood vessels.

12

what two zones are lymph nodes separated into?

B and T zones

13

what effect can T cells have on B cells?

they can cause B cells to produce antibodies

14

what are peyers patches?

patches of smooth cells embedded in villi covered cells.

15

what does MALT stand for?

mucosal associated lymphoid tissue

16

what covers peyers patches?

M cells

17

what is the difference between the adaptive and innate immune system?

adaptive is very specific and displays immunological memory

18

why does the adaptive immune system display a much larger response to an antigen in repeated exposure?

presence of memory cells allow a much quicker and stronger response after primary exposure

19

what are the differences between active and passive immunity?

active immunity - conferred by a host response to a microbe or a microbial antigen
passive immunity - conferred by adoptive transfer of antibodies or T lymphocytes specific for the microbe
active immunity is the only one that generates immunological memory

20

why does passive immunity not generate immunological memory?

because your own B cells are not involved in generating an immune response.

21

where are B cells produced?

bone marrow

22

what is the antigen receptor for a B cell

surface immunoglobulin (sIg)

23

why is it more important to tolerize T cells than B cells?

B cells cannot make antibodies in response to most antigens without the help of T cells

24

what is a pathogen?

any microorganism that causes disease.

25

what part of the pathogen are antibodies specific to?

epitope

26

what induces B cells to multiply?

recognition of a specific epitope on a specific antigen on a specific pathogen

27

what 2 chains are antibodies separated into?

light chain and heavy chain

28

what modification is made to antibodies after B cells multiply and produce them?

antibodies have a much higher affinity for epitope

29

what chain does the antibody bind to ?

light chain

30

what chain does the cell bind to?

heavy chain

31

what do the heavy chains define?

classes of immunoglobulin

32

how many different CLASSES of antibody are there?

(IGM IGD IGA IGE IGG)
5

33

what is the function of IGM

fixes compliment and opsonization

34

function of IGG

good opsonizer

35

function of IGA

protects mucosal surfaces, resistant to stomach acid

36

function of IGE

defends against parasites, causes anaphylactic shock and allergies

37

what causes antibodies to be flexible?

presence of a hinge between the light and heavy chains

38

why does antigen bound iGm display good complement binding

binding to epitope causes a conformational change that allows c1 protein to bind to IgM

39

what is opsonisation

the process of "tagging" a pathogen which causes fc receptors to "stick up" which causes the pathogen to be more susceptible to phagocytic action

40

why do mast cells sometimes cause allergic reactions?

when mast cells encounter a pathogen they dump all of their contents onto the pathogen to neutralise it, and some of these molecules can cause allergic reaction in the host

41

what ways are there to activate a B cell?

T cell dependent
T cell independent
complement activation

42

how does T cell dependent activation work?

Signal from a clustered BCR along with a signal from a T cell in which a protein on the surface of a T cell recognises the same antigen as the B cell and then binds to a receptor on the B cell

43

where do T cells go to get "educated"

thymus

44

what are T cells reponsible for?

cell mediated immunity and assisting B cells

45

what is the cell surface receptor of a T cell?

T cell receptor

46

what conditions have to be met in order for TCR to recognise antigens?

Has to be bound to MHC protein

47

What 2 classes of T cells are there?

helper (CD4+) and cytotoxic (CD8+)

48

what kind of antigens are T cells able to recognise?

ANY protein peptide that a pathogen may have due to association with MHC

49

What is it important for all lymphocytes to learn to do with regard to "self"

not to recognise "self" antigen

50

what happens to T cells that are unable to interact with MHC molecules

death by apoptosis

51

what determines what type of T cell thymocytes develop into?

whether it binds to MHC 1 (cytotoxic) or MHC 2 (helper)

52

what happens to T cells that cannot distinguish self from non self?

death by apoptosis

53

what is the purpose of MHC 1?

presents virally induced peptides to CD8+ T cells and trigger cytotoxic response

54

what is the purpose of MHC 2?

presents exogenously produced Ag to CD4+ T cells and activate macrophages and B cells

55

where is MHC 2 found?

on antigen presenting cells

56

what decides which T cell a naive T cell turns into after MHC peptide recognition?

range of different chemicals acting on T cells

57

Can T helper cells destroy pathogens?

No

58

what do cytotoxic T cells release once exposed to infected/dysfunctional somatic cells?

perforin, which forms pores in the target cell, also releases granzyme B - induces apoptosis

59

how can T memory cells be formed?

can arise from fully differentiated cells are from partially differentiated cells.