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what are the two primary electron carrying molecules in terminal respiration?

NAD(H) and FAD(H)


what is the end product of terminal respiration?

Water (H2O)


what are NAD and FAD reduced to respectively?

NADH+ and H+ and FADH2


where is the primary site of terminal respiration?

cristae of mitochondria


why is there a proton gradient across the membrane during terminal respiration?

3 out of 4 terminal respiration proteins push protons out of the inner mitochondrial membrane, creating a proton gradient


what is the enzyme that converts ADP and Pi to ATP?

ATP Synthase


where do the NADH and FADH2 have to be for terminal respiration?

mitochondrial matix


what is the glycerol phosphate shuttle?

the process of NADH passing its electrons to G-3-P and then passing said electrons to FAD in order to get through the mitochondrial membranes


FADH2 generates more ATP per molecule than NADH; true or false?



where do NADH and FADH2 enter the electron transport chain?

NADH - NADH-Q oxidoreductase
FADH2 - Succinate-Q reductase


which protein in the electron transport chain does not pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane?

succinate-Q reductase (complex II)


what substance does NADH donate its electrons to?

ubiquinone (reduced to ubiquinol)


what is the significance of the heme group in succinate-Q reductase?

blocks stray electrons from passing through the membrane


what is the function of cytochrome c oxidoreductase?

passes electrons to cytochrome c and pumps protons into the intermembrane space


what is the function of cytochrome c oxidase?

takes electrons from cytochrome c and passes them to molecular O2, also pumps protons into the intermembrane space


how is the energy stored in the proton gradient used?

used to generate electron motive force, which allows the proton gradient to do work
molecular turbine harnesses the energy in the proton gradient (ATP Synthase)


what is the function of ATP synthase?

to use the potential energy stored by the proton gradient to convert ADP and inorganic phosphate to ATP


what are the 2 components of ATP synthase?

F0 - membrane bound proton conducting unit
F1 - protrudes into matrix and acts as the catalyst for ATP synthesis


how do the two components of ATP synthase interact in order to produce ATP?

F0 cylinder rotates which forces conformational changes in the beta subunits of F1
these conformational changes are what catalyses the conversion of ADP +Pi to ATP and causes ATP to be RELEASED from the active site.


what are the three comformations of the beta subunit of F1 in the binding change mechanism?

subunit that binds ADP and Pi
subunit that binds ATP
subunit that doesnt bind ATP


how many protons can be transferred across the membrane in terminal respiration

complexes I, III, and IV transfer 8 protons across the membrane in one cycle


approximately how much ATP is generated by NADH and FADH2 respectively?

2.5 mol and 1.5 mol


how many protons travelling into the matrix does it take for ATP synthase to produce 1 ATP?

3 protons are required.


if electron transport and ATP synthesis are uncoupled, where does the potential energy go?

it is released as heat.


what clinical significance is there if the inner mitochondrial membrane becomes permeable to protons?

development of malignant hyperthermia