Flashcards in Immunology Deck (66):
Name at least 4 reasons why there has been emergence of new infectious disease
Global Village - increased mobility means infection can spread
Changes in Human Behaviour
Changes in Dynamics of Other Infection - Increased HIV has led to increased TB
Loss of natural habitat
Interactions of Pathogens with Humans
Example of Changes in Dynamic of Infections - HIV has led to increased prevalence of ...
Name Three Barriers to Infection
The Innate Immune System has a _____ and _____ response to pathogens
Name 4 Components of the Innate Immune System
The Innate Immune System is responsible for ......
Killing of Pathogens
Pathogens Express PRRs on their surface.
False - they express PAMPs,
The Adaptive Immune System has a _____ and ______ response to pathogens
The Adaptive Immune System expresses antigen:antigen receptors that generate immunological memory
3 Types of Phagocytes
3 Types of Lymphocyte
What is the role of Eosinophils, Mast Cells and Basophils
They are GRANULAR cells that release chemicals for acute inflammation
When are antibodies produced
In response to an antigen
Where do Mast Cells reside and what do they protect
In tissues to protect mucosal surfaces
How do Mast Cells cause Acute Inflammation
They DEGRANULATE and release Histamine and other pro-inflammatory mediators
What Pro-Inflammatory Mediators do Mast Cells Produce
Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines (TNF-a)
Neutrophils circulate in tissues
They circulate in the blood
Neutrophils are short/long lived
Neutrophils recognise _____ on pathogens
3 killing mechanisms of Neutrophils
Degranulation (Release of Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteases)
Dead Neutrophils form ....
Monocytes are precursors for Neutrophils
They are precursors for MACROPHAGES and dendritic cells
Macrophages reside in .....
What do macrophages do??
Ingest and kill pathogens
Clear debris from dead tissue cells
What is a Dendritic Cells main job?
Once in contact with an antigen where does a dendritic cell migrate to
Migrates to secondary lymphoid tissue (spleen/ lymph nodes) from peripheral tissues
Natural Killer Cells non specifically kill cells
Specifically kill tumour and virally infected cells
Where do T and B Cells circulate?
Blood, Lymph and Secondary Lymph Tissue
What do B Cells produce
What is the main job of a Helper T Cell
Regulation of the Immune System
CD4+ is a Helper/ Cytotoxic T Cell?
What is the main job of a Cytotoxic T Cell
Kill virally infected cells
CD8+ is a Helper/ Cytotoxic T Cell?
Cytotoxic T Cell
Primary Lymphoid Tissue is the site of .....
Leukocyte (WBC) development
Primary Lymphoid Tissue includes
Bone Marrow, Thymus
Secondary Lymphoid Tissue is the site of .....
T and B cell activation
Secondary Lymphoid Tissue includes
Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Tonsils, Peyers Patches
What are the mechanisms of contact in the Immune System??
When are Cytokines produced??
In response to infection, inflammation and tissue damage
Examples of Cytokines
Interferons are released in response to?
Pathogens (Mainly ANTI VIRAL)
TNF is mainly involved in....
What Cytokine controls and directs cell migration?
What are the local effects of Acute Inflammation?
Loss of Function
What are the three stages in the Innate Immune Response?
Recognition Phase (PRRs, PAMPs)
What is the Acute Phase Response?
Production of Acute Phase Proteins by the LIVER in response to Pro-Inflammatory cytokines
Complement proteins circulate in the blood in an active form
Fasle, They circulate in an inactive form
Activation of the complement system involves which three pathways?
Functions of the complement system?
Membrane Attack Complex (MHC)
What is the Membrane Attack Complex?
Complement mediated lysis, complement killing
What complement protein causes initiation of the Membrane Attack Complex??
What complement proteins inmate inflammation and chemotaxis?
C3a and C5a
How are B cells activated?
Antigen to Antigen presentation.
PPRs recognising PAMPs
How are T cells activated?
MHC binding to T cell receptor (T cells cannot bind to free antigens)
How are antibodies produced?
B cells differentiate to become Plasma cells in response to an antigen. The plasma cells produce antibodies
List the five types of antibody relative to their abundance in the blood
What are the two antibodies mothers give to their children?
IgG and IgA
Main function of IgG
Transported across the placenta to the developing foetus
Main function of IgA
Secretory - found in breast milk, saliva, tears
Provides defence at mucosal surfaces
Main function of IgM
First Ig produced during infection
Main function of IgE
Activates Mast Cells
Produces in allergic responses
What is the dual function of antibodies?
Recognition function - binding to antigen
What is Agglutination??
Binding of antibodies on to pathogens forming clusters that can be destroyed
What is the main antibody that mediates agglutination??
IgM (and IgG)
What is opsonisation?
Coating of a pathogen so it can be phagocytosed