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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (66):
1

Name at least 4 reasons why there has been emergence of new infectious disease

Global Village - increased mobility means infection can spread
Population Growth
Changes in Human Behaviour
Changes in Dynamics of Other Infection - Increased HIV has led to increased TB
Loss of natural habitat
Interactions of Pathogens with Humans

2

Example of Changes in Dynamic of Infections - HIV has led to increased prevalence of ...

TB

3

Name Three Barriers to Infection

Skin
Mucous
Commensal Bacteria

4

The Innate Immune System has a _____ and _____ response to pathogens

Rapid, General

5

Name 4 Components of the Innate Immune System

Mast Cells
NK Cells
Phagocytes
Complement

6

The Innate Immune System is responsible for ......

Acute Inflammation
Killing of Pathogens

7

True/False
Pathogens Express PRRs on their surface.

False - they express PAMPs,

8

The Adaptive Immune System has a _____ and ______ response to pathogens

Slow, Specific

9

True/False
The Adaptive Immune System expresses antigen:antigen receptors that generate immunological memory

True

10

3 Types of Phagocytes

Neutrophils
Macrophages
Dendritic Cells

11

3 Types of Lymphocyte

T Cells
B Cells
NK Cells

12

What is the role of Eosinophils, Mast Cells and Basophils

They are GRANULAR cells that release chemicals for acute inflammation

13

When are antibodies produced

In response to an antigen

14

Where do Mast Cells reside and what do they protect

In tissues to protect mucosal surfaces

15

How do Mast Cells cause Acute Inflammation

They DEGRANULATE and release Histamine and other pro-inflammatory mediators

16

What Pro-Inflammatory Mediators do Mast Cells Produce

Nitric Oxide
Histamines
Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines (TNF-a)

17

True/ False
Neutrophils circulate in tissues

False,
They circulate in the blood

18

Neutrophils are short/long lived

Short

19

Neutrophils recognise _____ on pathogens

PAMPs

20

3 killing mechanisms of Neutrophils

Phagocytosis
Extracellular Traps
Degranulation (Release of Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteases)

21

Dead Neutrophils form ....

PUS

22

True/ False
Monocytes are precursors for Neutrophils

FALSE
They are precursors for MACROPHAGES and dendritic cells

23

Macrophages reside in .....

Tissues

24

What do macrophages do??

Ingest and kill pathogens
Clear debris from dead tissue cells
Antigen Presentation

25

What is a Dendritic Cells main job?

Antigen presentation

26

Once in contact with an antigen where does a dendritic cell migrate to

Migrates to secondary lymphoid tissue (spleen/ lymph nodes) from peripheral tissues

27

True/ False
Natural Killer Cells non specifically kill cells

FALSE
Specifically kill tumour and virally infected cells

28

Where do T and B Cells circulate?

Blood, Lymph and Secondary Lymph Tissue

29

What do B Cells produce

Antibodies

30

What is the main job of a Helper T Cell

Regulation of the Immune System

31

CD4+ is a Helper/ Cytotoxic T Cell?

Helper

32

What is the main job of a Cytotoxic T Cell

Kill virally infected cells

33

CD8+ is a Helper/ Cytotoxic T Cell?

Cytotoxic T Cell

34

Primary Lymphoid Tissue is the site of .....

Leukocyte (WBC) development

35

Primary Lymphoid Tissue includes

Bone Marrow, Thymus

36

Secondary Lymphoid Tissue is the site of .....

T and B cell activation

37

Secondary Lymphoid Tissue includes

Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Tonsils, Peyers Patches

38

What are the mechanisms of contact in the Immune System??

Direct (ligand-ligand)
Indirect (cytokines)

39

When are Cytokines produced??

In response to infection, inflammation and tissue damage

40

Examples of Cytokines

Interferons
Interleukins
TNF
Chemokines

41

Interferons are released in response to?

Pathogens (Mainly ANTI VIRAL)

42

TNF is mainly involved in....

Inflammation

43

What Cytokine controls and directs cell migration?

Chemokines

44

What are the local effects of Acute Inflammation?

Redness, Heat
Swelling
Pain
Loss of Function

45

What are the three stages in the Innate Immune Response?

Recognition Phase (PRRs, PAMPs)
Activation Phase
Effector Phase

46

What is the Acute Phase Response?

Production of Acute Phase Proteins by the LIVER in response to Pro-Inflammatory cytokines

47

True/ False
Complement proteins circulate in the blood in an active form

Fasle, They circulate in an inactive form

48

Activation of the complement system involves which three pathways?

Classical Pathway
Lectin Pathway
Alternative Pathway

49

Functions of the complement system?

Membrane Attack Complex (MHC)
Opsonisation
Inflammation

50

What is the Membrane Attack Complex?

Complement mediated lysis, complement killing

51

What complement protein causes initiation of the Membrane Attack Complex??

C5b

52

What complement proteins inmate inflammation and chemotaxis?

C3a and C5a

53

How are B cells activated?

Antigen to Antigen presentation.
PPRs recognising PAMPs

54

How are T cells activated?

MHC binding to T cell receptor (T cells cannot bind to free antigens)

55

How are antibodies produced?

B cells differentiate to become Plasma cells in response to an antigen. The plasma cells produce antibodies

56

List the five types of antibody relative to their abundance in the blood

GAMED

57

What are the two antibodies mothers give to their children?

IgG and IgA

58

Main function of IgG

Transported across the placenta to the developing foetus

59

Main function of IgA

Secretory - found in breast milk, saliva, tears
Provides defence at mucosal surfaces

60

Main function of IgM

First Ig produced during infection

61

Main function of IgE

Activates Mast Cells
Produces in allergic responses

62

What is the dual function of antibodies?

Recognition function - binding to antigen
Effector function

63

What is Agglutination??

Binding of antibodies on to pathogens forming clusters that can be destroyed

64

What is the main antibody that mediates agglutination??

IgM (and IgG)

65

What is opsonisation?

Coating of a pathogen so it can be phagocytosed

66

What two cell types can B cells become once activated?

Plasma cells - produce antibodies
Memory B cells - immunological memory