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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (66):
1

What are the 4 main stages in the cell cycle?

G1, S, G2 and M

2

What is the order of CDKs in the cell cycle

D, E, A, B

3

What does retinoblastoma do?

Binds to E2f to stop cell division

4

What happens in S phase

DNA replication

5

At what stages can p53 cause cell arrest

G1/S - Main site
G2/M

6

What does p53 cause if cell is faulty

Apoptosis

7

Hyperplasia?

Increase in cell number in response to a stimulus

8

Example of physiological hyperplasia

Puberty - Breast tissue
Pregnancy - Hyperplasia of lining of uterus

9

Example of pathological hyperplasia

Prostatic hyperplasia
Bleeding post menopause
Lymph node in response to infection

10

True/ False.
Hyperplastic tissue is at risk of developing into cancer?

True

11

Pathological hypertrophy?

In the heart - can result in heart failure

12

Atrophy is?

Reduction in cell size or number

13

Physiological atrophy?

Embryological structures - uterus

14

Pathological atrophy?

Muscle wasting
Loss of blood supply

15

Name the 5 clinical features of inflammation

Rubor (redness), Calor (heat), Dolor (pain), Tumour (swelling), Loss of function

16

Mediators of inflammation are short/long lived

Short

17

Name the 4 consequences of acute inflammation?

Resolution
Suppuration (pus)
Repair, Organisation and Fibrosis
Chronic Inflammation

18

What do consequences of inflammation depend on?

Site
Type
Duration

19

What does pus contain

Neutrophils, bacteria and cellular debris

20

What is deposited in granulation tissue?

Collagen and smooth muscle cells

21

What cells are present in chronic inflammation

Lymphocytes
T cells, B cells and NK cells

22

What happens when a cell can't get enough oxygen?

Increased K+ and Ca2+ causes swelling.
Ca2+ activates ATPase causing a cascade and resulting in cell damage

23

What is the time period of an MI where resolution can occur?

< 20 minutes

24

When is the risk of cardiac rupture highest after an MI?

3-7 days

25

Fibroblasts lay down collagen progressively after ___ weeks and is complete at ____ weeks

2, 6

26

Atrophy is...

Reduction in cell size and number

27

True/ False
Necrosis can be physiological and pathological?

False
Always pathological

28

What happens in Coagulative necrosis

Cell outline is preserved and dead cells are consumed. Tombstone appearance.
Cardiac muscle

29

Liquefactive necrosis

Liquid viscous mass, no cell structure remains
Brain necrosis

30

Caseous necrosis

Granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis
TB

31

Physiological apoptosis

Formation of feet and hands in utero

32

Pathological apoptosis

In response to injury, radiation, chemo, viruses, cancer

33

What are the two mechanisms of necrosis?

Extrinsic (TNF) and Intrinsic (p53)

34

What is neoplasia??

Abnormal cell growth that is NOT in response to a stimulus

35

What is a tumour?

A swelling

36

Dysplasia

Disordered cell growth NOT in response to a stimulus

37

What makes a tumour malignant?

If it goes beyond the basement membrane and metastases

38

Metaplasia is

Reversible change from one cell type to another

39

Carcinoma in Situ is _____ that affects the __ ____

dysplasia, whole epithelium

40

True/ False
Metaplastic epithelium is at risk of malignancy?

True

41

What is the two hit hypothesis?

One working gene is enough to function. Two faulty copies to have a functional problem. Those who have inherited one faulty copy already are at increased risk.

42

Name two viruses that increase your risk of cancers?

HPV - Cervical cancer
Epstein Barr - several tumours

43

What are common mutations that cause sustained growth signalling?

Myc - promotes growth
P13K - commonly mutated kinase

44

Name an anti-apoptotic molecule

Blc-2

45

Name a molecule associated with angiogenesis

VEGF
Vascular endothelial growth factor

46

What cancers does BRCA increase the risk of

Breast, ovarian and pancreatic

47

What syndrome is MLH1 abnormal in

Lynch

48

What cancer can Lynch syndrome cause

Colorectal (HNPCC)

49

What helps in evasion of the immune system

Programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1)

50

Cancer cells are all the same
True/ False

False
All from one cell but are different

51

Name features of benign tumours?

No necrosis
Homogenous/ Symmetrical
NC ratio - normal

52

Name some features of malignant tumours?

Necoris
Heterogenous/ pleomorphic
NC ratio - Increased

53

Malignant neoplasm of the epithelium

Carcinoma

54

Benign squamous neoplasia

Papilloma

55

Mesenchyme tumours are ...

Tumours of connective tissue

56

Malignant lesions of connective tissue are called?

Sarcomas

57

Lipo- means

Tumour of fat cells

58

Osteo-

Tumour of the bone

59

Chondro-

Tumour of cartilage

60

Leiomy-

Smooth muscle

61

Gliomas

CNS

62

True/ False
Melanoma is a benign tumour

FALSE
Only -oma tumour that is malignant

63

All tumours in the blood are malignant
True/ False

True

64

Weight loss in cancer is known as

Cachexia

65

Why do patients that have cancer lose weight?

Tumour uses energy for growth and secretes cytokines that result in increased metabolism

66

What are paraneoplastic symptoms

Symptoms that are not directly related to the tumour but instead the hormones produced by the tumour