Flashcards in Pathology Deck (66):
What are the 4 main stages in the cell cycle?
G1, S, G2 and M
What is the order of CDKs in the cell cycle
D, E, A, B
What does retinoblastoma do?
Binds to E2f to stop cell division
What happens in S phase
At what stages can p53 cause cell arrest
G1/S - Main site
What does p53 cause if cell is faulty
Increase in cell number in response to a stimulus
Example of physiological hyperplasia
Puberty - Breast tissue
Pregnancy - Hyperplasia of lining of uterus
Example of pathological hyperplasia
Bleeding post menopause
Lymph node in response to infection
Hyperplastic tissue is at risk of developing into cancer?
In the heart - can result in heart failure
Reduction in cell size or number
Embryological structures - uterus
Loss of blood supply
Name the 5 clinical features of inflammation
Rubor (redness), Calor (heat), Dolor (pain), Tumour (swelling), Loss of function
Mediators of inflammation are short/long lived
Name the 4 consequences of acute inflammation?
Repair, Organisation and Fibrosis
What do consequences of inflammation depend on?
What does pus contain
Neutrophils, bacteria and cellular debris
What is deposited in granulation tissue?
Collagen and smooth muscle cells
What cells are present in chronic inflammation
T cells, B cells and NK cells
What happens when a cell can't get enough oxygen?
Increased K+ and Ca2+ causes swelling.
Ca2+ activates ATPase causing a cascade and resulting in cell damage
What is the time period of an MI where resolution can occur?
< 20 minutes
When is the risk of cardiac rupture highest after an MI?
Fibroblasts lay down collagen progressively after ___ weeks and is complete at ____ weeks
Reduction in cell size and number
Necrosis can be physiological and pathological?
What happens in Coagulative necrosis
Cell outline is preserved and dead cells are consumed. Tombstone appearance.
Liquid viscous mass, no cell structure remains
Granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis
Formation of feet and hands in utero
In response to injury, radiation, chemo, viruses, cancer
What are the two mechanisms of necrosis?
Extrinsic (TNF) and Intrinsic (p53)
What is neoplasia??
Abnormal cell growth that is NOT in response to a stimulus
What is a tumour?
Disordered cell growth NOT in response to a stimulus
What makes a tumour malignant?
If it goes beyond the basement membrane and metastases
Reversible change from one cell type to another
Carcinoma in Situ is _____ that affects the __ ____
dysplasia, whole epithelium
Metaplastic epithelium is at risk of malignancy?
What is the two hit hypothesis?
One working gene is enough to function. Two faulty copies to have a functional problem. Those who have inherited one faulty copy already are at increased risk.
Name two viruses that increase your risk of cancers?
HPV - Cervical cancer
Epstein Barr - several tumours
What are common mutations that cause sustained growth signalling?
Myc - promotes growth
P13K - commonly mutated kinase
Name an anti-apoptotic molecule
Name a molecule associated with angiogenesis
Vascular endothelial growth factor
What cancers does BRCA increase the risk of
Breast, ovarian and pancreatic
What syndrome is MLH1 abnormal in
What cancer can Lynch syndrome cause
What helps in evasion of the immune system
Programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1)
Cancer cells are all the same
All from one cell but are different
Name features of benign tumours?
NC ratio - normal
Name some features of malignant tumours?
NC ratio - Increased
Malignant neoplasm of the epithelium
Benign squamous neoplasia
Mesenchyme tumours are ...
Tumours of connective tissue
Malignant lesions of connective tissue are called?
Tumour of fat cells
Tumour of the bone
Tumour of cartilage
Melanoma is a benign tumour
Only -oma tumour that is malignant
All tumours in the blood are malignant
Weight loss in cancer is known as
Why do patients that have cancer lose weight?
Tumour uses energy for growth and secretes cytokines that result in increased metabolism