Immunology Flashcards Preview

FDN3 By Nathan and Minnie > Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology Deck (866)
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1

What are the characteristics of innate immunity?

  • Present at birth
  • Rapid
  • Relies on pattern recognition
  • Not specific
  • No memory
  • Primarily mediated by neutrophils

2

What are the characteristics of adaptive immunity?

  • Slow (on first exposure)
  • Diverse
  • Adapts to antigen (not pre-formed)
  • Highly specific
  • Generates memory and improved immunity w/ repeated antigen exposure

3

What is specificity? 

The ability to distinguish between different substances

4

Describe specificity with regards to innate immunity

Proteins that recognize common patterns of infectious organisms 

Not very specific 

5

Describe specificity with regards to adaptive immunity

Surface protein recognizes unique molecules

Highly specific 

6

What is passive immunity?

Describe the characteristics of passive immunity

Transfer of pre-formed antibody from one person or animal to another

Rapid

Short-lived

7

What are examples of passive immunity?

  • Antitoxins for botulinum toxins
  • Antibodies to rabies virus
  • Maternal IgG antibodies crossing the placenta
  • Maternal IgA antibodies in breast milk

8

What is active immunity?

Describe the characteristics of active immunity

Induction of an immune response (exposure to antigen)

Slow

Memory (long-lived)

9

What is an example of active immunity?

An immunization

10

Patient AJ is planning to travel internationally in 3 days to a region endemic for Hepatitis A. She will be there for one year. What is the best type of immunity-based therapy to offer her to prevent infection?

Immunization against Hepatitis A with Ig and the inactivated virus

11

Which immunoglobulin do nursing infants have?

Maternal IgA

12

Which immunoglobulin do all very young infants (under 6 weeks) have?

Maternal IgG

(And Maternal IgA if they are nursing) 

13

Which sort of immune response are infants under the age unable to generate?

Infants under 2 years old cannot generate an effective T-cell independent B cell response 

(such as to a polysaccharide capsule)

14

Which sort of immune response do older adults have a decreased ability to generate?

T-cell independent B cell response

15

Which two groups cannot generate / generated reduced T-cell independent B cell responses?

  • Infants under age of two
  • Older adults

Struggle w/ encapsulated bacteria

Have greater frequency and severity of infections

16

Why are encapsulated bacteria particularly dangerous to infants under the age of two?

Infants under two cannot generate an effective T-cell independent B cell response

17

Why are encapsulated bacteria particularly dangerous to older adults?

Older adults have decreased ability to generate an effective T-cell independent B cell response

18

What must pneumoccal vaccines consisting of polysaccharides be conjugated to in order for children under the age of 2 to allow for a protective immune response?

Proteins

19

What are cytokines?

Small proteins that are produced by cells and have effects on cells

Include chemokines, interleukins, lymphokines, tumor necrosis factors, interferons

20

What is the function of IL-2?

Promotes T cell growth and activation

21

What is "clusters of differentiation"?

Nomenclature system for the proteins used to identify cells

22

What does a CD refer to?

A protein expressed by cells

23

On which cells is CD3 expressed?

All T cells

24

On which cells is CD4 expressed?

What does CD4 bind to?

Helper T cells

Binds to MHC class II

25

On which cells is CD8 expressed?

What does CD8 bind to?

Cytotoxic T cells

Binds to MHC class I

26

On which cells is CD19 expressed?

All B cells

27

On which cells is CD56 expressed?

NK cells

28

What is CD28?

What does it bind to?

Co-stimulatory protein on T cells (2nd signal)

Binds to B7 on APCs

29

A 33 year old woman is planning to travel internationally in 3 days to a region endemic for Hepatitis A. What is the best type of immunity-based therapy to offer her to prevent infection?

Due to short time before her potential exposure to Hepatitis A, she should receive immune globulin (Ig), which is passive immunization, since the antibody is preformed and the protection is rapid. 

This protection is short-lived, so she should also receive inactive Hepatitis A vaccine, which provides longer protection.
Ideally, she would also have a booster in 6 months for much longer protection.

30

What protein must antigen-presenting cells express on their surface to present a peptide to CD4+ T helper cells?

MHC II