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Flashcards in immunology I Deck (48):
1

common CBC trend seen in acute bacterial infection

  • increased neutrophils

2

common CBC trend seen in acute parasitic infection

  • increased Eosinophils 

3

common CBC trend seen in acute viral infection

  • increased lymphoctyes

4

immunogenicity 

the capacity to induce an immune response by foreign, complex, high molecular weight compounds 

5

Antigenicity 

ability to bind to Ig or immune cells; an immune response need not result 

6

the site on an antigenat which a specific antibody becomes attached 

epitope 

7

a partial antigen; a specific nonprotein substance which does not itself elicit antibody formation but does elicit the immune response when coupled with a carrier protein 

hapten

8

an antibody that reacts with an antigen other than the one that induced its production 

cross-reacting antibody 

9

characterizes which immune system:

  • rapidly mobilized first line of defense
  • not dependent on prior exposure to foreign invader
  • non-specific
  • response does NOT increase with repeat exposure 

innate (natural, native) immune system 

10

describe the "respiratory burst" of innate immune system 

  • membrane-bound NADPH system produces
    • superoxide radicals
    • hyperchlorous acid
    • H2O2
    • chloramines

11

list granulocyte cells that are part of innate immunity 

  • neutrophil
  • eosinophil
  • basophil
  • mast cell 

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12

list components of innate immunity 

  • macrophages
  • granulocytes
  • natural killer cells
  • complement
  • physical barriers 

13

name "Barriers" component of innate immune system 

  • skin
  • commensal bacteria: normal bacterial flora
    • compete with potential pathogens 
  • mucous membranes 
    • tears
    • saliva
    • mucus
    • gastric secretions 

14

what does mucus contain that protects against gram positive bacteria 

lysozyme 

15

basophils and mast cells share a progenitor. where does each settle to mature 

  • basophils mature in the bone marrow
  • mast cells mature in tissues 

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16

list the first step of inflammation after tissue/cell has been damaged 

  1. damaged tissue and/or cell mediated histamine release
    1. vasodilation and leaky capillaries

17

which granulocyte is this:

  • least common
  • circulate in bloodstream
  • allergic and helminth responses
  • release histamine and heparin 

basophils 

18

basophils secrete what two compounds that result in reduction of clotting and increased blood flow 

  • histamine
  • heparin 

19

which granulocyte is this

  • present primarily in GI and respiratory tract
  • release oxygen radicals to kill microbes
  • active in allergic rxns and asthma
  • stimulate T-lymphocytes 

 

eosinophils 

20

eosinophils release what compound that causes airway smooth muscle contraction 

leukotrienes 

21

which of the granylocytes is weakly phagocytic 

eosinophils 

22

which of the granulocytes is particularly active against bacteria 

neutrophils 

23

which of the granulocytes is known as "first responder" 

neutrophils

24

which granulocyte is this

  • most abundant of the granulocytes
  • circulate in bloodstream
  • first responder
  • release cytokines to amplify immune response 

neutrophils 

25

which of the granulocytes is strongly phagocytic 

neutrophils 

26

mast cells release what two compounds that result in vasodilation 

  • histamine
  • heparin 

27

when will mast cells degranulate?

  • injured
  • exposed to complement proteins
  • activated 

28

which cells are primarily responsible for anaphylaxis 

mast cells: massive release of histamine

  • body-wide vasodilation

29

monocytes give rise to what two cell types 

  • dendritic cells
  • macrophages 

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30

monocytes develop in bone marrow and 50% migrate to which organ 

spleen 

31

major function of dendritic cells 

antigen presenting cells 

  • antigens are captured by dendritic cells who then migrate to the nearest lymph node and present the antigen to T cells and B cells 

32

what are specialized dendritic cells in skin called 

Langerhans cells 

33

primary function of macrophages 

  • large phagocytes
  • act as antigen presenting cells 

34

macrophages have what 3 stages of readiness 

  1. resting: cleaning up cellular debris
  2. primed: APCs, engulf bacteria
  3. hyper-activated: inflammatory cytokines cause macrophages to enlarge and start rapidly eating pathogens 

35

specialized macrophages within the liver 

Kupffer cells 

36

chronic activation of Kupffer cells (toxins, ETOH) leads to what 

  • overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and chronic inflammation
    • liver cell damage
    • CA 

37

function of natrual killer cells 

  • cytotoxic lymphocytes
  • **dont need to recognize a pathogen to kill it 
  • operate on a "kill" or "don't kill" system
    • can kill during resting phase but are better killers when activated 

38

killing activity of natrual killer cells is enhanced by what 

cytokines secreted by macrophages 

39

how do natrual killer cells kill thier target 

  • release perforins and proteases that cause cell membrane lysis or trigger apoptosis 
    • can also cause apoptosis in thier target by surface contact 

40

complement function 

proteins that work together to signal the other immune cells that the attack is ON!

41

what activates complement 

antigens

42

where are complement proteins made

liver 

43

what is the most abundant complement protein in humans 

C3

44

opsonization 

enhancing phagocytosis of antigens by "marking" them for destruction 

45

chemotaxis 

  • attracting and activating macrophages and neutrophils
  • inducing mast cells and basophils to degranulate 

46

function of membrane attack complex (MAC)

rupture pathogen cell membrane by disrupting osmotic balance

  • C5b forms a complex with C6, C7, C8, and C9 -> MAC complex 

47

what are the two main complement pathways 

  1. classical pathway - bound IgG, IgM
  2. alternative pathway - certain antigens

48

the cells of the innate immune system are primarily derived from what cell 

Myeloid progenitor cell 

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