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Flashcards in immunology II Deck (51):
1

acquired immunity is broken down into two parts. name them 

  • active: own antibodies are made
    • natural: exposure to infectious agents
    • artificial: immunization 
  • passive: ready-made antibodies 
    • natural: maternal antibodies
    • articial: antibodies from other sources 

2

humoral immunity consists of what components 

  1. B cells
  2. antibodies 

3

cell-mediated immunity consists of what components 

  • T-cells
  • APC
    • dendritic cells, macrophages, B-cells

4

what are the 4 attribute of adaptive immune system 

  1. antigen specificity
    • targets specific pathogens 
  2. high diversity 
    • pathogens recognized and targeted 
  3. immunologic memory
  4. needs to be activated 
    • activated by exposure to antigens

5

epitopes 

distinctive markers of antigens 

6

antigens 

markers of non-self

7

cells of adaptive immune system are derived from what common cell

Lymphoid stem cell 

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8

Name the primary lymphatic organs and their function 

where B cells and T cells mature and differentiate

  • Bone marrow (B cells)
  • Thymus (T cells) 

 

9

name the secondary lymphatic organs 

  • Spleen
  • Lymph nodes
  • Tonsils
  • MALT: mucosal associated lymphoid tissue 

10

function of secondary lymphatic organs 

  • where mature antigen-specific B and T cells interact
    • interact with eachother and antigen presenting cells 

11

Humoral immunity:

  • mediated by:
  • defense against: 

 

  • mediated by: B cells
  • defense against: Extracellular pathogens 

12

Cell mediated immunity

  • mediated by:

  •  

    defense against: 

  • mediated by: T cells

  • defense against: Intracellular pathogens 

13

function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) - known as HLA (human leukocyte antigen)

  • cell surface molecules
  • allow cells to recongize each other

14

which cells have MHC-I

virtually all cells

15

which cells have MHC-II

  • B-cells
  • dendritic cells
  • activated macrophages and thymic epithelial cells 

16

MHC II molecules present antigen to what cells 

T helper cells 

17

T helper cells have what receptors?

  • T- cell receptor: responsible for recognizing antigens bound to MHC II
  • CD4 co-receptor 

18

how do T-helper cells become activated

  • T-helper cells look for APC
  • binding of MHC II molecule with antigen activates T-helper cell
    • activated T helper cell activate other cells by releasing cytokines 

19

where do humoral immunity take place 

secondary lymphatic organs 

20

how do B cells come to display antigens via MHC II

  1. B cell sees an antigen
  2. binds to and engulfs antigen
  3. processes antigen and displays fragment as MHC II 

21

how do B cells differentiate into plasma and memory cells 

  • B cells interact with activated T helper cells which co-stimulate B cells to differentiate into plasma and memory cells 

22

structure of antibodies 

  • 2 identical heavy H chains
  • 2 identical light L chains
  • tips of "Y" are variable: antigen binding site

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23

Primary response of humoral immunity 

  1. B cells first encounter with antigen
  2. require T-helper cells to activate
  3. B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma and memory cells 

24

function of plasma cells (differentiated form of B cells) 

make antibodies 

25

what antibody is produced first? second? 

  1. IgM "Immediate" 
  2. IgG follows

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26

In humoral immunity secondary response (subsequent encounter of same antigen), previously generated B memory cells activate rapidly. which antibody is most involved?

IgG

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27

direct action mechanisms of antibodies: binding of antibodies to antigens inactivtes antigens by what 5 mechanisms?

  1. neutralization: neutralizes toxins; blocks binding of viruses and coats bacteria 
  2. agglutination of microbes
  3. precipitation of dissolved antigens
  4. opsonization: provides "handles" for phagocytosis 
  5. activation of complement system 

28

which class of immunoglobins is primarly involved in secondary response

IgG

29

which class of immunoglobins are the only IgG which cross the placenta 

IgG 

30

half life of IgG

21 days

31

which class of immunoglobins is the major antibody against carbohydrates on bacterial cell walls 

IgM

32

which class of immunoglobins is the predominant antibody formed by fetus and neonate 

IgM

33

which class of immunoglobins is able to diffuse from vasculature

  • IgG: small size 

34

structure and half life of IgM

  • pentamer
  • half-life: 5-10 days

35

structure and half life of IgA

  • monomer or dimer with J chain
  • 6 days

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36

location of IgA

mucosal areas

  • gut, respiratory tract, urogenital tract 

 

37

structure and half life of IgD

  • monomer
  • 3 days

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38

location of IgD 

on mature B cell membranes; required for B cell activation

39

structure and half life of IgE

  • monomer
  • 2 days 

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40

function of IgE

  • binding of IgE on mast cell or basophil results in release of histamine
  • defense of parasites

41

which Antibodies are responsible for type II hypersentivity reactions 

  • antibodies bind to antigens on patient's own cell surface or fetus cells
  • IgM and IgG

42

which class of antibody is responsible for type I hypersensitivity reaction 

  • allergy, gives, anaphylactic rxn
  • IgE

43

what are the types of T cells

  1. T-helper cell
  2. T-memory cell
  3. T-regulatory (suppressor cells) 
  4. cytotoxic T cell (T killer cell)
  5. Natural T killer cell

44

function of T-regulatory (suppressor cells) 

prevent immune reactions from getting out of hand

45

T killer cells (cytotoxic T cells) are activated how

by T helper cells 

46

receptors on T killer cell 

  • T cell receptor
  • CD8

47

what role do T cells have in Diabetes Mellitus Type I 

  • T cells target beta cells of pancreas
    • patient can no longer make insulin 

48

what role do T cells have in Multiple Sclerosis 

  • T cells target myelin proteins 
    • destruction myelin sheath

49

function of HIV virus 

  • destroys T helper cells
    • impairs both humoral and cell-mediated immunity 

50

end product of activation of complement 

MAC: membrane attack complex 

51

how is complement activated 

C1 binds to antigen-antibody and activates the cascade