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Flashcards in Immunomodulators_New Deck (22):

Define Monoclonal antibodies

Derived from 1 B Cell Fused with Multiple myeloma tumor cell

Cloned B cells grow forever to produce same antibody from original B cell


Procedure for antibody production

1) Immunize mouse with antigen you want antibody for

2) Wait for IgG switch in mouse

3) Cut out spleen, distribute 1 cell/well

4) Add myeloma cells and wait for cell fusion

5) Add culture medium with desired antigen and select hybrid based on specificity


How are monoclonal antibodies used anti-inflammatory agents?

Monoclonal Abs against mediators of inflammation + receptors/proteins in inflammatory response


Targets of monoclonal antibodies for anti-inflammaotry

IL-2 receptor
CD11a (T cell activation/migration)
alpha-2 integrin (lymphocyte migration)


Murine mAb:

made entirely from immunized mice


Chimeric mAb

mouse VL and VH domains, but human C domains


Humanized mAb

only the CDR’s of the V domain are mouse


Human mAb

fully human


Disadvantages of mouse monoclonal antibody

1) used only once in patient

2) subsequent uses limited by production of HAMA (human anti-mouse antibody)


Disadvantages of chimeric monoclonal antibody

Can be used more than once
but use limited by production of Human anti-chimeric mab


Why use human mAB

can be used many times in same patient


Define NK cells (large granular lymphocytes)

1) Have receptors for stress markers on growth-dysregulated cells

2) Have Fc receptors for IgG on tumor cells


Define ADCC

NK cells bind Fc of IgG on tumor cells
Activates apoptosis of tumor cell


effect of Class I MHC expression levels on susceptibility of target cells to CTL and NK cells

Both NK and CTLs have MHC class 1 receptors

But NK cells inactivated by interaction w/ MHC class 1

Therefore, CTL kill cells with lots of MHC class 1

NK kills tumor cells that downreg MHC class 1


Discuss the use of growth factors in bone marrow transplantation

Use G-CSF or GM-CSF to induce proliferation of Hematopoietic stem cells normally at low [ ] in bone marrow

Also use G-CSF/GM-CSF to help transplant patient speed up recovery


What does BiTE stand for?

Bispecific T-cell Engager


How does BiTE work?

2 single-chain engineered antibodies, one against CD19 and one against CD3, bind to T cells in lymphoma and cause tumor cell death


What drug uses BiTE?

blinatumomab (Blincyto)


What does CAR stand for?

chimeric antigen receptor


How are CARs used to treat CA?

bind them to T cells removed from CA pts using lentiviruses, then replace the cells; this allows transformed CTLs to bind tumor targets with high affinity and specificity w/o MHC restriction


LO 7. Discuss the use of modified (drugs, isotopes) monoclonal antibodies in tumor diagnosis or therapy.

Abs to tumor-associated antigens can activate complement or ADCC; ibritumomab tiuxetan can be used to fluorescently ID and then treat tumors; ipilimumab is used to bind to VEGF


Name 8 major drugs used in organ transplantation and how they work.

1. azathioprine (decreased DNA synth. and mRNA transc.)
2. mycophenylate mofetil (same as azathioprine, less tox)
3. glucocorticoids (anti-inflamm)
4. cyclosporine A (decrease IL-2 production and lessen stim of T cells)
5. tacrolimus (synergizes with cyclosporine A)
6. sirolimus (rapamycin- binds FKBP-12 to inibit mTOR and T cell activation)
7. anti-thymocyte globulin (ATGAM)
8. mAbs (against CD3 and IL-2)