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Flashcards in Immunotherapy Deck (39)
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1

What does immunotherapy do?

Persuades the immune system in some way to fight a particular disease

2

Types of immune suppression

Allergy and autoimmune disease suppression
Blanket immune suppression
General immunosuppression
Opportunistic infections

3

Pathology of acute transplant rejection

Associated with T cell responses that mediate immune cell infiltration into the graft and effect its rejection

4

Introduction of what in an acute transplant rejection increases the survival? And what is it?

Cyclosporine - an antirejection drug

5

Antirejection drugs examples

Cyclosporin
Rapamycin

6

What do anti rejection drugs do?

Methods for inhibiting T cell activation to treat graft rejection

7

Examples of active adaptive immunity

infection or exposure
Immunisation vaccines

8

Examples of passive adaptive immunity

Placental transfer of IgG
Colostral transfer of IgA - mother to foetus
Immunoglobulin therapy or immune cells
Snake or spider bites, scorpians or fish stings
- passive infusion of antibody specific for that toxin
Hypogammaglobulinaemia - primary or secondary
- infusion of y - globulins to reduce infection
Rabies immunoglobulin
- post exposure prophylaxis together with prevention

9

When is human normal immunoglobulin (HNIG) used for post exposure prophylaxis?

Hepatitis A
Measles
Polio
Rubella

10

When are specific immunoglobulins used for post exposure prophylaxis?

Hepatitis B
Rabies
Tetanus
Varicella zoster

11

What is IV immunoglobulin (IvIg) used for?

A biological for replacement therapy in primary and secondary immune deficiencies and also used in some autoimmune disorders

12

Indications for IV immunoglobulin

Primary immunodeficiency
Wiskott Aldrich syndrome
IgG subclass deficiencies with recurrent infections
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Kawasaki disease
common variable immunodeficiency
Multiple myeloma / CLL
Children with HIV
GB syndrome
allogenic bone marrow transplantation

13

Immunotherapy types

Direct (targeted)
Indirect

14

What is direct / targeted immunotherapy?

Antibodies or antibody related fragments that detect an antigen on the tumour cell and destroy the target by recruiting immune cells or by delivering a toxin or radiosotope to it

15

Types of directed / targeted immunotherapy

Monoclonal antibodies
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs)
Bi-specific antibodies

16

What is indirect immunotherapy?

The immune system is activated rendering it able to seek and destroy tumour cells

17

What is the target in directed immunotherapy?

The tumour

18

What is the target in indirect immunotherapy?

The immune system

19

Types of indirect immunotherapy

Tumour vaccines
Dendritic cell vaccines
Adoptive cell transfer
Cytokine therapies
Checkpoint inhibitor therapies
Stimulatory antibodies

20

What are cytokine therapies?

Immunomodulatory cytokines to active anti tumour immunity

21

When are cytokine therapies used?

Specific cancers

22

What is a polyclonal response?

Immunisation with antigen will typically lead to a polyclonal response
Recognise different epitopes of the reagent and so antibodies bind to the different epitopes - so a number of epitope will be bound by antibody
Many different B cell clones will generate antibodies specific for the antigen

23

What is a monoclonal response?

Immunisation -> fusion and immortalisation of B cells -> isolation and screening - > expansion of desired hybridoma

24

Examples of drugs that illicit a monoclonal response

Muine
Chimeric
Human
Fragment

25

What is Rituxan (rituximab) first line for?

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

26

What is Rituxan?

Specific for the CD20 molecule on the cell surface of a small sub population of B cells

27

What kind of therapy is infliximab?

Anti-TNF therapy

28

What does infliximab treat?

RA
Ankylosing spondylitis
Crohn's disease
Ulcerative colitis

29

What does infliximab do?

Chimeric antibody that blocks the function of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF)

30

What is TNF?

A pro inflammatory cytokine that stimulates an acute phase reaction