Flashcards in Immunotherapy Deck (39)
What does immunotherapy do?
Persuades the immune system in some way to fight a particular disease
Types of immune suppression
Allergy and autoimmune disease suppression
Blanket immune suppression
Pathology of acute transplant rejection
Associated with T cell responses that mediate immune cell infiltration into the graft and effect its rejection
Introduction of what in an acute transplant rejection increases the survival? And what is it?
Cyclosporine - an antirejection drug
Antirejection drugs examples
What do anti rejection drugs do?
Methods for inhibiting T cell activation to treat graft rejection
Examples of active adaptive immunity
infection or exposure
Examples of passive adaptive immunity
Placental transfer of IgG
Colostral transfer of IgA - mother to foetus
Immunoglobulin therapy or immune cells
Snake or spider bites, scorpians or fish stings
- passive infusion of antibody specific for that toxin
Hypogammaglobulinaemia - primary or secondary
- infusion of y - globulins to reduce infection
- post exposure prophylaxis together with prevention
When is human normal immunoglobulin (HNIG) used for post exposure prophylaxis?
When are specific immunoglobulins used for post exposure prophylaxis?
What is IV immunoglobulin (IvIg) used for?
A biological for replacement therapy in primary and secondary immune deficiencies and also used in some autoimmune disorders
Indications for IV immunoglobulin
Wiskott Aldrich syndrome
IgG subclass deficiencies with recurrent infections
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
common variable immunodeficiency
Multiple myeloma / CLL
Children with HIV
allogenic bone marrow transplantation
What is direct / targeted immunotherapy?
Antibodies or antibody related fragments that detect an antigen on the tumour cell and destroy the target by recruiting immune cells or by delivering a toxin or radiosotope to it
Types of directed / targeted immunotherapy
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs)
What is indirect immunotherapy?
The immune system is activated rendering it able to seek and destroy tumour cells
What is the target in directed immunotherapy?
What is the target in indirect immunotherapy?
The immune system
Types of indirect immunotherapy
Dendritic cell vaccines
Adoptive cell transfer
Checkpoint inhibitor therapies
What are cytokine therapies?
Immunomodulatory cytokines to active anti tumour immunity
When are cytokine therapies used?
What is a polyclonal response?
Immunisation with antigen will typically lead to a polyclonal response
Recognise different epitopes of the reagent and so antibodies bind to the different epitopes - so a number of epitope will be bound by antibody
Many different B cell clones will generate antibodies specific for the antigen
What is a monoclonal response?
Immunisation -> fusion and immortalisation of B cells -> isolation and screening - > expansion of desired hybridoma
Examples of drugs that illicit a monoclonal response
What is Rituxan (rituximab) first line for?
What is Rituxan?
Specific for the CD20 molecule on the cell surface of a small sub population of B cells
What kind of therapy is infliximab?
What does infliximab treat?
What does infliximab do?
Chimeric antibody that blocks the function of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF)